The Atlantis Enigma-cont...
Map-making has a history of at least 12,000 years. A map was found in 1966 engraved on a mammoth tusk discovered at (Image from Ancient Inventions)Click and drag photo to resize.
Mezhirich, in the Ukraine. It was dated to 10,000 BC and showed a local river flanked by a row of houses.
Pottery jars were in use by the same date. A fine example was discovered in the Ishigoya Cave, on Honshu, Japan. Other pots found on the island were 1,000 years older (11,000 BC),
Cheese-making, yogurt-making and wine fermentation were all known in the Stone Age, according to recent discoveries. (14)
Larger than life-size fingerprints are carved on a Neolithic dolmen on the Ile de Gavrinis, Brittany, France. Most of the carvings show fingertip patterns typical of those on modern police files.
Two are partial representations of palm prints. An article in the Chronique Medicale suggests the carvings may have been used as the ultimate identification references of tribal chieftains.
The earliest boomerang, a hunting weapon with very specific and unusual aerodynamic properties, is dated at 21,000 years of age. It was found not in Australia, but in Poland.
Oil lamps were made 20,000 years ago. They may have been used to light surgical operations on the human brain carried out at much the same time. There is an ancient tradition of anesthetics, such as controlled doses of mandrake, which rendered patients immobile and insensitive to pain.
Incredibly, copper was mined before flint in Serbia. There are prehistoric copper mines on Lake Superior, in California, Arkansas, New Mexico, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, Georgia, New Jersey and Ohio, where prehistoric iron smelting furnaces have also been found.
Manganese was mined near Broken Hill in Zambia. Carbon dating of charcoal on the site indicates these mines were being worked 28,130 years ago.
In 1987, Birmingham University archaeologists, Lawrence Barfield and Mike Hodder, concluded that a mound of fire-cracked stones, excavated beside a stream in the city, had been a prehistoric sauna. Other similar sites have since been identified throughout Britain.
The horse was domesticated in Europe sometime before 15,000 BC. A cave wall drawing at La Marche, France, shows one clearly wearing a bridle. So does an engraving found at the Grotte de Marsoulas, and another from St Michel d'Arudy.
Archaeologists excavating tumuli on New Caledonia and the Isle of Pines in the south-west Pacific, discovered more than 400 man-made cement cylinders, 40 to 75 inches in diameter and up to 100 inches long. These cylinders, the purpose of which is unknown, were speckled with silica and iron gravel. Carbon dating showed they could be as old as 13,000 years.
There are paved prehistoric roads in Yucatan, New Zealand, Kenya and Malta.
There are 170,000 miles of underground aqueducts, thousands of years old, in Iran. There is a water tank in Sri Lanka with a surface area equivalent to Lake Geneva. "The greatest of these systems, of course is the Parakrama Samudraya (left)or the Sea of Parakrama, a tank so vast that it is often mistaken for the ocean.
It is of such a width that it is impossible to stand upon one shore and view the other side, and it encircles the main city like a ribbon, being both a defensive border against intruders and the lifeline of the people in times of peace. The Kingdom of Polonnaruwa was completely self-sufficient during King Parakramabahu's reign." ...Nationmaster.com
(4) In 1932, Captain G. E. H. Wilson wrote in "Man" of a forgotten civilization in East Africa's Rift Valley. Signs of this civilization stretched across what are now Tanganyika, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya and Northern Zimbabwe and included terracing, ancient canals, drainage systems, miles of roadways and an irrigation system that appears to have included the diversion of whole rivers.
In June 1940, Froelich G. Rainey and Magnus Marks began excavating a Neolithic site near Ipiutak in the Arctic Circle. By the time they uncovered the remains of some 600 houses, with indications that at least a further 200 remained to be excavated, they realized they had stumbled on a prehistoric metropolis.
The city was laid out on a logical grid and stretched for more than a mile. Artifacts and craft work discovered at the site were of "elaborate and sophisticated carving and ... beautiful workmanship".
The archaeologists were convinced their find could not represent any proto-Eskimo culture, and decided instead that the people who built this chilly city must have entered the area from elsewhere.
In 1928, the Geographical Review published a report on the discovery of ancient ruins on the site of Kevkenes Dagh, Asia Minor. This great isolated city, built by an entirely unknown culture, was three times the size of Boghaz Koi, the ancient Hittite capital. High-walled fortifications, 13 feet thick, enclosed an area of 1.5 miles by 1 mile.
Also in the 1920's came reports of the remains of cities, temples and monuments hidden in the wooded valleys stretching along the coastline through Honduras up to Yucatan. The remains were described as superbly carved monoliths and stones of immense size covered with ornaments and glyphs reminiscent of Egyptian, Indian and even Chinese art.
An anonymous writer in Pan-American Magazine suggested they might be remnants of Atlantis. You can see why.
(5) Yanoguni Underwater Monoliths
Yonaguni is a small island south-west of Okinawa in the Japanese archipelago. In 1988, scuba divers led by Kihachiro Aratake discovered an enormous stone structure on the seabed off the coast of Yonaguni.
The structure lay more than 75 feet below the surface. Investigation showed it was 600 feet long, 450 feet wide and 90 feet high. The locals decided it was a natural formation.
Ten years later, the experts weren't so sure. The first geologist to investigate the site was Professor Masaki Kimura of Ryuku University on Okinawa. In April 1998, he discovered a structure divided into five distinct layers and decided it had to be manmade.
It is easy to see why. Underwater photographs and video footage reveal a stepped, ziggurat-like monument of extraordinary proportions. Each step is about 3 feet high with clean edges and sharp angles. There is also an archway and two parallel monoliths among other intriguing features like drainage channels.
Further investigation led to the discovery of smaller satellite ziggurats near the main edifice. Each is about 30 feet wide and 6 feet high. Each appears to be constructed of stepped slabs. Divers also found what looks like a road surrounding the main structure.
Robert Schoch, the American geologist who re-dated the sphinx, dived to examine the Yonaguni Monument and later commented that while natural water erosion and rock splitting might possibly produce a structure of this type, he had never seen anything quite like it before. Professor Kimura was even more forthcoming. He maintained bluntly that if the sharp steps were the result of natural erosion there would be debris on the seabed surrounding them. In fact, there is none.
The aptly named Team Atlantis expedition who dived to make a video documentary of the site concluded that while the monument may be a natural formation in part, it had certainly been extensively modified by human hands. In other words, someone in the depths of prehistory discovered a suitable rock formation and used sophisticated engineering techniques to shape it the way they wanted.
But if the various structures in the Yonaguni complex are artificial, there is no known Japanese civilization that could have created them. Geological dating places the site above water no later than 8000 BC. (The actual time-span is somewhere between 8000 and 10,000 BC.)
Orthodox prehistory claims the most advanced culture in Japan at the time was small groups of hunter-gatherers. As Professor Kimura points out, there is no way they could have built or even modified the Yonaguni Monument. He believes for something of this size some sort of machinery must have been involved.
(6) America's William R. Corliss, a tireless collector of anomalies, expresses the fundamental situation brilliantly: Most impressive of all are the great deserted cities, the ruins of which stand on the lonely plains of Asia Minor, high in the thin air of the Andes, and on storm-swept Arctic shores. Here are signs of great civilizations that once prospered and raised magnificent walls, buildings and monuments. Perhaps we have acclaimed the Greeks and Romans too loudly.(15)
Plato described Atlantis as a literate, seafaring culture which had domesticated the horse, created vast engineering works and built great cities. Its people wore clothes, mined and used metal, engaged in agriculture, drank wine and had some sort of centralized political structure. For anyone who subscribes to today's consensus of prehistory, this must all seem like an outlandish fantasy.
Yet, as we have now seen, there really were Ice Age peoples who created vast engineering works and built great cities, who wore clothes, mined and used metal, grew crops, drank wine and manifestly must have had some sort of centralized political structure.
Even the question of literacy no longer seems quite so fantastic. Although the Sumerians are generally credited with inventing writing in the fourth millennium BC, a 1979 study by two American academics thinks otherwise.
Allan Forbes Jr. and T. R. Crowder undertook an in-depth analysis of some curious signs which appear repeatedly in Upper Palaeolithic cave art. Unlike the rest of the art, these signs do not seem to be directly representational - that's to say they bear no obvious resemblance to any animal, person or artifact. Forbes and Crowder systematically considered, then eliminated, the possibility that the signs were meant to mark individual property, that they were hunting tallies or memory aids.
The Americans then compared the signs with characters found in several early written scripts - Greek, Runic and Indus Valley signs - and found sufficient similarities to justify the belief that the later alphabets actually evolved from the prehistoric cave signs.
They were left with only one conclusion, which they expressed forcefully in a paper published in World Archaeology: "The sole remaining possibility is writing ... a precursor form not differing fundamentally from inscriptions in early written languages."
If we could just find evidence of maritime ability, it would almost seem as if Plato might one day be vindicated.
Notes for chapter 5
(13) In the title of their exceptional work, "Forbidden Archaeology, the Hidden History of the Human Race", published by the Bhaktivedanta Institute, San Diego, 1993. (14) See Ancient Inventions by Peter James and Nick Thorpe, Michael O?Mara Books, London,1995. (15) Quoted from "Ancient Man: A Handbook of Puzzling Artifacts" by William R. Corliss, The Sourcebook Project, Glen Arm, MD, 1980.
Stone Age Large Ovens
UNTIL now, evolutionists have believed that all earlier people using stone technology 'have eaten meat raw or barbecued over flames or smoked'.
However, a site in Japan, dated by evolutionary assumptions at 28,000 years (which would put it in the so-called 'StoneAge') has revealed otherwise. The four-metre deep excavation contained, in addition to many elephant bones left over from human meals, the remains of stone ovens indicating 'a high degree of culinary sophistication'.
An education board official in Numazu (west of Tokyo, where the find took place) pointed out that using such stone ovens 'allows you to cook more delicately, without charring the meat'. The Sun-Herald, December 20,1992 (p.23).
The Babel incident recorded in Genesis 1-11 would have seen many of the dispersing groups plunged into an 'instant Stone Age 'through loss of metal technology (or loss of its easy availability). However, they would have been as intelligent and resourceful as people alive today.
From Answers In Genesis:
The Evolution of Man?
1. Heidelberg Man - Built from a jaw bone that was conceded by many to be quite human.
2. Nebraska Man - Scientifically built up from one tooth and later found to be the tooth of an extinct pig.
3. Piltdown Man - The jawbone turned out to belong to a modern ape.
4. Peking Man - 500,000 years old. All evidence has disappeared.
5. Neanderthal Man - At the Int'l Congress of Zoology (1958) Dr. A. J. E. Cave Said his examination showed that the famous Neanderthal skeleton found in France over 50 years ago is that of an old man who suffered from arthritis.
6. Cro-Magnon Man - One of the earliest and best established fossils is at least equal in physique and brain capacity to modern man...so what's the difference?
7. Modern Man - This genius thinks we came from a monkey.
8. Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools - Romans 1:22
The Proceeding is text from The Evolution Poster