i Pyramids Packed with Fossil Shells..Implications?.....Page 67

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Pyramids Packed with Fossil Shells..Implications?.....Page 67

Genesis 7

For forty days the flood kept coming on the earth, and as the waters increased they lifted the ark high above the earth. The waters rose and increased greatly on the earth, and the ark floated on the surface of the water. They rose greatly on the earth, and all the high mountains under the entire heavens were covered.

The waters rose and covered the mountains to a depth of more than twenty feet. Every living thing that moved on the earth perished—birds, livestock, wild animals, all the creatures that swarm over the earth, and all mankind.

Everything on dry land that had the breath of life in its nostrils died. Every living thing on the face of the earth was wiped out; men and animals and the creatures that move along the ground and the birds of the air were wiped from the earth. Only Noah was left, and those with him in the ark.

The waters flooded the earth for a hundred and fifty days.

This article, refocuses attention on the fact that the entire world is covered by sediments borne by water. Specifically, this article spotlights the fact that many if not all of Egypts monuments contain thousands of intact, fossils of sea creatures. What are the implications? Certainly there might be some who think of the Genesis account of the great flood. On the other hand, if you thought the pyramids were perhaps pre-flood, this might throw a monkey wrench into that theory.

What if you were inclined to accept the fact that the pyramid's were cast concrete, how do these finding impact those speculations?

Before we take you to the actual article, we give a few snippets from other sources which we believe will help put these Egyptian, fossil nummulites in perspective. Did you know that the pyramids themselves contain quite a bit of limestone rock which in turn is made up largely of fossilized sea shells? Did you know that entire mountain ranges are made up of these same fossilized sea shells? ......s8int.com

"The majority of stone blocks used to build the pyramids are a kind of rock called "nummulitic limestone." Limestone just means they're comprised of calcium carbonate, but the nummulitic part means that the calcium carbonate in question is predominantly the fossil shells of a marine protist called Nummulites (the genus name), which belongs to the larger taxonomic group Foraminifera. In fact, the very first Foraminifera ever noted was a nummulite from the Great Pyramids......…University of California Museum of Paleontology

The rocks of the Tertiary epoch witness to widespread aqueous and volcanic action. This is specially noticeable in the Eocene strata, prominent among which are the vast beds of limestone laid down when Europe, its north-west corner excepted, and Central Asia were covered by the sea, Hindostan being then an island, and Northern and Southern Africa separated by the sea which then covered the Sahara.

These beds extend from the Pyrenees to China and Japan, and also largely compose the Alps, Carpathians, Himalayas, Atlas, and lesser mountain chains. Not many noble nor might}' arc called to the enduring tasks of nature.

It is the minute agents, unresting and widespread, that have been the efficient minute agents, unresting and widespread, that have been the efficient causes of much that is grandest in earth-structure ; and it is of shells of the coin-like nummulites that these stupendous formations are mainly composed....... The Story of Creation: A Plain Account of Evolution By Edward Clodd, 1888

What we see when we look at the fossil record is billions and billions of dead things in rocks laid down all over the world. We're living on a veritable graveyard... billions of dead things in rocks laid down by water, all over the world... is eloquent testimony to the fact that there was a great catastrophe....David M. Raup, a University of Chicago paleontologist.

Pyramids Packed With Fossil Shells
Monday, 28 April 2008 Jennifer Viegas
Discovery News

Many of Egypt's most famous monuments, such as the Sphinx and Cheops, contain hundreds of thousands of marine fossils, most of which are fully intact and preserved in the walls of the structures, according to a new study.

The study's authors suggest that the stones that make up the examined monuments at Giza plateau, Fayum and Abydos must have been carved out of natural stone since they reveal what chunks of the sea floor must have looked like over 4,000 years ago, when the buildings were erected.

"The observed random emplacement and strictly homogenous distribution of the fossil shells within the whole rock is in harmony with their initial in situ setting in a fluidal sea bottom environment," wrote Ioannis Liritzis and his colleagues from the University of the Aegean and the University of Athens.

The researchers analyzed the mineralogy, as well as the chemical makeup and structure, of small material samples chiseled from the Sphinx Temple, the Osirion Shaft, the Valley Temple, Cheops, Khefren, Osirion at Abydos, the Temple of Seti I at Abydos and Qasr el-Sagha at Fayum.

X-ray diffraction and radioactivity measurements, which can penetrate solid materials to help illuminate their composition, were carried out on the samples. The analysis determined the primary building materials were "pinky" granites, black and white granites, sandstones and various types of limestones.

The latter was found to contain "numerous shell fossils of nummulites genus Nummulites, simple marine organisms whose name means 'little coins'.

" At Cheops alone, "(they constituted) a proportion of up to 40 percent of the whole building stone rock."

The findings have been accepted for publication in the Journal of Cultural Heritage. Nummulites, meaning "little coins," are simple marine organisms. Shells of those that lived during the Eocene period around 55.8 to 33.9 million years ago are most commonly found in Egyptian limestone. Fossils for the organisms have also been unearthed at other sites, such as in Turkey and throughout the Mediterranean.

When horizontally bisected, a nummulite appears as a perfect spiral. Since they were common in ancient Egypt, it's believed the shells were actually used as coins, perhaps explaining their name.

Fossils for ancient relatives to sand dollars, starfish and sea urchins were also detected in the Egyptian limestone.

Liritzis and his team argue that since the fossils are largely undamaged and are distributed in a random manner within the stone, in accordance with their typical distribution at sea floors, the large building stones used to construct the monuments must have been carved out of natural stone instead of cast in molds.

To further their argument, the scientists say the X-ray patterns detected no presence of lime, which would be expected along with natron, a salt found in early cast materials. They also point out that no references about molds, buckets or other casting tools exist in early Egyptian paintings, sculptures or texts.

Joseph Davidovits, professor and director of France's Geopolymer Institute, formulated the theory that natural limestone was cast like concrete to build the pyramids of Egypt. Davidovits told Discovery News that Liritzis and his team "should have taken into account the scientific analysis" conducted by himself and other researchers before backing the carved-not-cast theory.

Robert Temple, co-director of the Project for Historical Dating and a visiting research fellow at universities in America, Egypt and Greece, has also studied Egypt's monuments.

He agrees with Davidovits about the casting.

"There is no evidence known that suggests the ancient Egyptians had cranes," he said. "Without cranes, it is difficult to imagine how they could have lifted giant stones, some as heavy as 200 tons."

Temple, however, agrees, "Egyptian pyramid blocks of limestone tend to contain fossil shells and nummulites, often huge quantities of them, many of them intact, and many of them of surprisingly large size."

He added, "Frankly, not many people pay attention to the shells, which I have always thought was a shame. 'Seashells in the Desert'-- a good story."

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