By Sharon Y. James, s8intcom 2007
The Doheny Expedition
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Samuel Hubbard Jr. was born in San Francisco in May 1863, the son of Sam Hubbard and Sophie Hunt. In his teen years, Samuel Jr. spent his time hunting "rails" and other game as well as writing articles on the local flora and fauna for such publications as Zoe, A Biological Journal, The Game Birds of California and various publications of local Academies of Science.
In 1881 he entered U.C Berkeley where among other things he was a member of the Beta Theta Pi fraternity.
In 1883 at the age of twenty he left school and became President of the Samuel Hubbard Co. in Oakland, Ca. (or it may have been his father who was President) That company later became California Nitrate Development Co. which sought to exploit nitrates in Death Valley, Ca.
In 1896, at the age of 33 he traveled to the Grand Canyon where he made a series of incredible discoveries which should have turned post Darwinist science on its head—if anyone would have believed him.
It would be another thirty years before he would have an opportunity to silence his critics and belittlers and provide scientific proof that his fantastic story was true; that man and dinosaurs had co-existed, that there was proof in two forms that giant humans had lived in the Canyon, including a petrified human giant, that elephants and ibexes had both lived in North America, in contravention of scientific knowledge of the day. That scientific proof would come in 1924--in the form of the Doheny Expedition, of which he was in charge.
This story however is mostly about his initial trip to the Grand Canyon in 1896.
Charles W. Gilmore was only 22 and just beginning his scientific career when Hubbard wrote about his amazing discoveries in 1896.
By the time he joined the Doheny Expedition 30 years later, in 1924, he was as mainstream a scientist as one could be. He was at the time of the expedition one of the more influential figures in 20th Century vertebrate paleontology, and had worked at both the Carnegie Museum and the National Museum of Natural History, where he served as Curator of Vertebrate Paleontology.
His principal studies included work on Jurassic sauropods. In fact, he gave names to dinosaurs in North America and Mongolia, including the Cretaceous sauropod Alamosaurus, Alectrosaurus, Archaeornithomimus, Bactrosaurus, Brachyceratops, Chirostenotes, Mongolosaurus, Parrosaurus, Pinacosaurus, Styracosaurus and Thescelosaurus.
His dinosaur knowledge was to come in handy during the 1924 expedition but in 1986 Hubbard had no one in the scientific establishment like Gilmore to back him up.
Edward Laurence Doheny was 40 years old when Hubbard made his first trip to the Grand Canyon in 1896. Doheny was an American oil tycoon who had made $100,000,000 on just one group of oil leases at one point in his career and, so had plenty of money to spend on a scientific expedition to the Grand Canyon to prove that Darwinism was wrong and that Samuel Hubbard was right. After all, he probably reasoned, God had been pretty good to him.
Following is Samuel Hubbard’s story of his 1896 “expedition” to the Grand Canyon and of the many discoveries he made. At the time of the publication of his article on October 2, 1896 in the Los Angeles Times, he no doubt expected it to be received in the same way his articles for local ornithological publications such as “The Condor” had been received but instead he would find himself “a martyr seething in the fires of scientific contempt and derision”2 for three decades.
Chicagoesque Tracks in the Old Red Sandstone
Alleged Proof that Men Twenty Feet Tall Lived in the Grand Canyon of the Colorado
Indian Dead Long Time Ago
Los Angeles Times, October 2, 1896
By Samuel Hubbard Jr.
Hubbard began recounting his tale with the following provocative intro:
“Does anybody believe that there has been a race of gigantic men who were twelve to twenty feet high (who)ever lived in these United States of America? And yet the proof that such a race of people did live in this country is to be found in the Grand Canon of the Colorado River, in Northern Arizona. This proof consists of, first:
The 1986 Los Angeles Times Article
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Footprints in the red sandstone. Footprints that appear to have been made by the moccasined feet of gigantic men. Men whose tracks measured twenty inches in length, and who stepped five feet at a stride.
The second proof is that there is the petrified body of such a man likewise in the red sandstone of the Grand Canon District. This body was that of a living, breathing man, but after death the flesh was replaced by lime or silica, held in solution in the water.
There is ample evidence that nature was able to perform this feat, as the petrifying process is being carried on in the canon to this day.
The third fact is that there is, and was, a strong and almost universal tradition among the ancient people of Mexico and Peru that such a race of giants lived in their country.
Perhaps it is almost too much to call this proof, but it is at least corroborative testimony.
Now, aside from the interest which attaches to these tracks on account of their size, there is a geological puzzle involved which will set scientific men to thinking. The tracks of men and animals in the red sandstone of the carboniferous period are more than a geological puzzle; it is a geological crime.”
Since Hubbard’s time the Carboniferous is thought by science to have been even further back in the past than it was in 1896. The Carboniferous Period is thought to have spanned a time period from about 354 to 290 million years ago.
In his article, Hubbard goes on to then give a detailed explanation of rock strata and the ages associated with them. He explains that neither giant humans nor the animals whose footprints dot the ancient beach should have been around at the time of the red sandstone’s formation.
He stated that science was going to have to work hard to explain the prints under the current paradigm or else, “geology is all wrong”.
Mr. Hubbard’s interest in artifacts of the Grand Canyon began in 1883 when he first visited the Canyon. In 1895, while visiting the site as a tourist he met whom he calls in the article “Mr. Guide” but whom we now know as a Mr. Hull. Mr. Hull, a guide fluent in the local Native American tongues recounted the following story:
He and a Mr. Lavelle, some years earlier had been in the Canyon prospecting for gold when they encountered some local “Indians”. The Indians asked if they had an interest in seeing “the big Indian” up there and volunteered to take them to it. Upon arriving at the site they came upon a projecting slab of limestone and saw the following;
“Outstretched on this slab was the body of a gigantic man, turned into stone. The body was entirely nude, and laid face downward. They estimated his height to be 18 or 20 feet. The left arm was at full length while the right arm was doubled under the head. The left leg was perfect but the foot was jammed into a crack in the slab”.
Even in those days, no one believed their story. The Indians also told them about a place in the canyon where the tracks of these “giant Indians” and animals could be seen in solid rock. Hubbard might have been the only person outside of the Indians themselves to believe the Guide's story.
Giant Footprints in Sandstone
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Hubbard had shown an interest in the natural sciences all his life and so was familiar with the apparent periods of gigantism among the animals of the distant past; reasoning that it might be true of man himself. He was also aware of the giant fossilized human footprints that had recently been found at Carson Nevada, which had been written up in various scientific journals of the day.
A few years past an old trapper of his acquaintance had told him about finding the shin bone of a giant man somewhere in Southern Arizona. When placed with one end of the shin bone on the ground, he reported that the other end reached to the level of his thigh.
For these reasons, Hubbard was inclined to believe the Guide’s story and accepted his invitation to return in the winter, when the snow was on the ground and visit the aforementioned curiosities in the Canyon. It was safer to make these kinds of excursions into the desert in the winter months when the snow could be melted for water.
They left Williams, Arizona in February 1896 with a buckboard loaded with supplies pulled by two horses. It took five days walking through deep snow to arrive at Holtzman’s Camp, some 40 miles from their starting point. After another three days they arrived near a camp of Supai Indians, where they bargained for a guide to take them to the “footprints”.
On the journey, Hubbard took note that wherever they went in the desert, there was evidence in the form of “rock houses” and broken pottery that men had had settlements there. He thought that there was not a square mile of desert that failed to provide evidence of prior habitation of man.
“Here the trail becomes less steep and we walked out into the middle of the valley on top of the lower red sandstone. We climbed down into this formation about one hundred feet to the head of the dry gorge, which leads to the main river, and there impressed into the solid rock were the tracks we had come so far to see.
Not one, but hundreds of them, and all going in the same direction, viz., down toward the Colorado River.”
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The prints they saw were of mocassined feet and animals. They were able to follow the left, right progress of one particular “monster” set of human footprints for quite a distance.
These footprints measured 20 inches long and nine inches wide. The stride was approximately five feet.
He explained that he took the identification of Mr. Hull, the Grand Canyon guide and that of their Supai Indian guide that the prints were human to be unassailable and certainly more expert than that of any “scientific” expert who might have a reason to say otherwise.
As a matter of fact, the Indians were wearing similar moccasins to that day.
Mixed in with the other tracks were a number of tiny, silver dollar sized “horse” tracks. It looked to the trackers as though a group of giant men, women and children had walked along the then riverbank driving small horses before them.
In another segment of the sandstone, they found more prints of a giant in three strides again averaging five feet.
A “normal” human stride (man) is approximately three feet. They took note that the prints were even more distinct at the second location and that there was no blurring of the prints such that would occur if they were the tracks of a quadruped, where the hind legs stepped over the prints of the front legs.
They also saw in the sandstone, the footprints of a giant lion, a mammoth, rabbits, foxes, wolves or dogs, mountain sheep, elk and other animals that they did not recognize. None of these creatures should have been around to leave prints in sandstone.
Hubbard took photographs and made casts of certain of the prints. He also collected samples of the sandstone formation.
He was a man of science after all.
After cataloging the sandstone footprints, and wondering about the geological conundrum that they represented, Hubbard and his party of three retraced their steps with some difficulty for about a day’s time. They left the path to examine an ancient limestone fortress they encountered that was fifty feet high and 150 feet long.
The Fortress in 1924
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Its defenders had erected a parapet which partly still stood in order to defend one side. The other side did not need to be defended because there was a 2,000 foot drop into the canyon on that side. The fortress had been flattened on top and many defenders could stand there at one time.
What civilization from the past occupied that fortress and who were their enemies? No one knows and no doubt not many archeologists have even tried to find out. Even the mound builders who many have studied and written about are an enigma and yet the type of architechture represented by the fortress is distinct from their earthen mounds and possibly even more mysterious.
A by now familiar ancient mystery was also rediscovered at the fortress. Huge stone blocks weighing perhaps a ton had been raised from a location in the canyon to the top of the fortress, a distance of more than 300 feet. How was that accomplished?
They continued their journey and camped for the night at the head of the Tobacobe Trail. Continuing down the trail the next day they encountered hieroglyphic covered walls as well as pictures of various animals.
Among them was a drawing of an elephant which wasn’t supposed to have lived in North America.
No doubt a pioneer who kept his eyes open in the wilderness might receive a better education about the past through these ancient drawings and artifacts than those professionals who had learned from books.
A few days later they found themselves at a 125 foot waterfall known as the Bridal Veil. In the meantime, Hubbard had been mentally working on the puzzle of the alleged giant petrified men, since that was their next destination. How could a human body become petrified? Wouldn’t the flesh decay well before it could be replaced by the lime that the water holds in solution?
“After an examination of this fall and its surroundings, all doubts vanished. The water is so heavily charged with lime that it is perceptible to the taste. Everything that comes in contact with it is turned into stone.
Roots, sticks, leaves, moss, and flood trash had lodged and collected on top of the fall. This mass had become petrified, one piece at a time, until it stood fifty feet out from the main wall over which the stream originally flowed.
In it were all sorts of grottoes and caverns originally formed of petrified vegetation. One cavern was begun but not finished as the course of the stream had been changed.
Beside the fall we saw the phenomenon of a solid wall of stone growing like a fungus! This seems incredible, but it’s the truth. The spray drifted upon this wall thereby making the conditions favorable for the growth of great quantities of bright green moss. An examination showed that this was growing on a similar bed of moss which had turned into stone.
Every little spine and filament, every tiny leaf was an exact counterpart of the living plant above, but it no longer thrilled with life; it was gray stone.”
Hubbard thought that this process had been going on for centuries and that it would go on forever. As long as the water had a high percentage of lime, everything it touched would eventually be turned into stone.
The following day Hubbard, Hull and their Indian guide set out to find the petrified giant, one of the main artifacts that they had come to the canyon to see. That day, after a long hike they discovered that the giant that Hull had seen three years ago, had completely been covered over in a landslide. Discouraged and disappointed, they returned to camp.
The following morning they began the journey back home when their Indian guide finally understood what they had been looking for. Coo-o-da par vitch, he said, which literally means; Indian dead long time ago”.
He pointed to an elevated location, indicating that the coo-o-da par vitch he knew about was in that direction.
In other words, this was a second petrified body, and not the same one that Hull had seen earlier. After some time they arrived where he had pointed.
“We looked where he had pointed and there, sure enough was unmistakably the body of a human being turned into stone.
Both legs were gone just above the knee but there were the great thighs, the hips and beyond these the crease in the back and just a glimpse of a black head.
The body was about a hundred feet from where we stood and just beyond the perpendicular wall of red sandstone. It laid with the head and shoulders uphill.”
It was a matter of some difficulty to actually reach the body, involving climbing one of the wildest canyons in the Grand Canyon and scrambling along a narrow ledge. The location for viewing the body was very dangerous but up close he noted; there was a gutter or ravine in the rock through which water was running.
The body was in the midst of that stream which Hubbard assumed is how the body became petrified. It was completely black in color.
“I lowered a tape line down the back to the end of the spine. The length from that point to the top of the head was just six and one-half feet. Implying a length of thirteen feet for the whole body.
In some places on the body, he noted that veins and blood vessels were visible.
We made five exposures with the Kodak, but from very difficult positions. Judging from the size of the hips, the general smoothness of outline and general lack of bulging muscles, also the delicacy of the forearm, we both concluded that this was the figure of a woman”.
After this, Hubbard spent some time in his article educating his readers about the multiplicity of “myths” and legends concerning giants who lived in both North and South America in ages past.
For example, the Olmecs claimed to have been enslaved for some time by the Quninames, or giants.
Perhaps those myths and legends had some truth to them. Perhaps they had only encountered the remnants of the giants, such as their stone footprints or their petrified bodies.
Upon his return, Samuel Hubbard Jr. published an article in the Los Angeles Times on October 2, 1896. It was printed on page 5, and synopsized here.
Samuel Hubbard did not become famous or create a scientific sensation -at least not outside of Oakland, Ca.
His Grand Canyon discoveries were not accepted by scientific journals of his day. He was the recipient of a great deal of ridicule and worked for 30 years to find someone to finance a scientific expedition to validate his discoveries.
He continued to write articles for local bird journals and between his trip to the Canyon in 1986 and the Doheny scientific expedition in 1924 he was named the Curator for the Oakland Museum.
Financed by Edward Doheny, Charles W. Gilmore, the establishment scientist, accompanied Hubbard back to the Grand Canyon in 1924 in what was known as the Doheny Expedition.
He verified all of Hubbard’s discoveries and even made a number of important additional discoveries. He saw the giant footprints and the mammal footprints in sandstone. He measured and photographed them, and confirmed the rock strata. His explanation? “Unexplained”.
The Doheny Expedition in a Magazine of the Day
Gilmore also saw the giant petrified woman. His explanation; a “freak of nature”. Gilmore told the scientific world afterwards that these discoveries pushed the evolution of man back at least 10,000,000 years. That is because one of the foremost dinosaur experts in the world became convinced that man and dinosaur had co-existed. In his time dinosaurs were thought to have gone extinct 10,000,000 years ago. Today, it is thought to have been around 40,000,000 years ago.
THEOSOPHY, Vol. 13, No. 8, June, 1925
ANTIQUITY OF MAN
STORIES IN STONES
1924 New York Times Article About Dinosaur/Human Interaction
Discovered by Doheny Expedition
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"Thirty odd years ago, a Mr. Hull was led to a remarkable discovery by Indians of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Samuel Hubbard, Curator of the Oakland Museum, fell heir to this discovery, and for these three decades has found himself a martyr seething in the fires of scientific contempt and derision.
In the autumn of 1924, Mr. Hubbard at last succeeded in obtaining backing, and even the company of an orthodox scientist, Dr. Charles W. Gilmore, of the United States National Museum.
In the course of the expedition the discoveries described in this magazine in June, 1924, were photographed, casts were taken, moving pictures of the casting process secured, and the whole discovery amplified…
The points in the discovery now made scientifically "respectable" are the actual existence of the ibex in America -- which confounds present theories; (note well that the Ibex is found associated in Europe with those cave-men who were the remnants of Atlantis);
carvings of mammoths, dinosaurs, and ostriches; symbols of the Wisdom-Religion; a vast number of carvings and drawings admittedly confusing and unexplainable to science; and dinosaur tracks in the same slab of rock with tracks of a feline animal of apparently modern type.
This last discovery upsets the whole scientific relation of the animal periods. And, as in the "Cascadia" discovery, many of the carvings are covered with "desert varnish," which betokens an age out of all relation to accepted theories as to human descent.
Dr. Gilmore acknowledges the tremendous scientific importance of these discoveries, over his own signature, in a manner which lifts Mr. Hubbard from the ranks of the charlatan to which he has so long been relegated.
Dr. Gilmore saw the sandstone tracks of giant human beings. He saw a petrified body also. But Dr. Gilmore sees in the body precisely "an isolated freak of nature." As to the tracks, after trying to explain them as the remains of some kind of peculiar shellfish -- certainly an improvement on the "ground-sloth" usually advanced in such cases -- he frankly threw up his hands and left them as "unexplained."
THEOSOPHY, Vol. 12, No. 8, June, 1924
(Pages 377-378) ON THE LOOKOUT
THE HUBBARD DISCOVERY
In this magazine for September, 1923, we mentioned a reported discovery by Mr. Samuel Hubbard, of remains of giants in the Grand Canyon of Arizona. Owing to press unreliability, we did not notice this to a great extent.
We have now, however, obtained more knowledge on the subject, and there remains no doubt that Mr. Hubbard has actually made a discovery composed of the following parts:
(a) Petrified bodies of two human beings about 18 and 15 feet in height respectively. One of these is buried under a recent rock fall which would require several days' work to remove; the other, of which Mr. Hubbard took photographs, is in a crevice of difficult accessibility. The bodies are formed of a limestone petrification embedded in sandstone.
(b) An ancient beach, now sandstone, containing a great number of footprints of a giant race, men, women and children; the prints of adults about 17 to 20 inches in length, and corresponding in size and shape to the Carson City and Blue Ridge prints.
With these prints are associated those of a huge elephant, similar in size to the remains discovered in the La Brea pits -- Elephas Primigenius, we believe -- and very small horse tracks, probably corresponding to the Pliohippus.
This beach was evidently occupied when the river was many hundreds of feet above where it now is. Some of the human prints are partly covered by the overlying stratum of stone, which is gradually weathering off.
(c) Wall drawings showing dinosaurus, elephant, ostrich, and ibex; also the same figure of the serpent with the egg in mouth as found in the Mississippi mounds, with numerous other drawings. One drawing shows an elephant attacking a man; if the drawing is to scale, and if the elephant corresponds to the La Brea animal, the man is about 18 feet tall.
The prediction we made on the date noted above has proven true to the letter. Mr. Hubbard, an old resident of Oakland whose bona fides is beyond question, has been received with anything from the polite evasion of Dr. Osborn to the contempt of a so-called scientist who remarked publicly that "Hubbard saw snakes and not giants."
Mr. Hubbard, who is not identified with Theosophy or any other scientific heterodoxy, has proven remarkably patient under this reception, contenting himself as reports seem to show, merely with reiterating the facts.
His discovery was made in 1896, and further elaborated in two subsequent expeditions. Throughout that time his reception has been the same; no scientist of repute has dared even to investigate personally.
Right, Doheny Sauropod according to Gilmore
Left, Man in Jaws of Dinosaur
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Three standard objections are made to the discovery: First, it is against the Darwinian theory, therefore cannot be true; Second, such human skeletons would crush under the body weight. This, it is almost needless to say, ignores the known strength of the human skeleton, as well as the present and former existence of any number of animals whose bulk imposes at least as great a strain;
Third, human flesh will not petrify. This last is simply a theory and not a fact, yet it is held superior to an attested fact. Knowing the real nature of the lime-laden water of this district, we see little difficulty in the possibility of a shell forming, within which the body might decay, leaving the outer form intact; nor in the possibility of the immediate formation of a sand mould about the body, in the course of a freshet, which would remain to be filled with lime by infiltration as the flesh decayed.
A further theory is that the bodies are carvings. Whereupon we have a vision of some unskilled hand -- Indian, are we to suppose -- carving, in stone which defies a steel chisel, human forms so perfect that the surface veins show; transporting them (weight at least about two and a half tons) into a position almost inaccessible, and certainly not permitting the use of tackle, and finally, embedding them in another stone so cleverly that no junction is visible; moreover, inserting the legs entirely beneath the surface of the sandstone; and then leaving the forms to be found by chance!
Yet this folly is scientific, while Mr. Hubbard's discovery is unscientific!
This recalls vividly the reception of the Carson City giant prints. They were (a) not human because of their size and the length of stride; (b) produced by an ordinary man wearing wooden sandals. Whereupon we are called upon to visualize a primitive man pursuing game (and from the age of the prints, perchance eluding the festive sabre-tooth tiger), wearing wooden clogs twenty inches long and seven broad! If puerility can go farther, we know not the time, the place, nor the occasion.
Biographical sources: Internet & Wikipedia