Photo 1 Ancient African Mask from the book: African Art in American Collections, by Robbins & Nooter
Photo 2 Mask "pterosaur" compared with modern drawings of pterodactylus kochi. Many times pterodactylus is described or drawn without the crest but a 1998 fossil find had the soft tissue preserved which showed a striated soft-tissue crest on the skull.
Pterosaurs were supposed to have gone extinct 65 million years ago or so. Why is a pterodactylus kochi depicted on an African mask less than 1,000 years old? That's a question for those who believe they were extinct before man came along. We believe that they were contemporaneous with the artist.
This expert (in our main article, below) has concluded that many of these creatures were too large to fly which begs the question; how did gangly wings which did not aid in flight make pterosaurs better able to survive? In other words, what would be the evolutionary advantage to pterosaur wings? Style?...s8int.com
Pterosaurs Could Not Fly
Paris - A Japanese researcher has put paleo-biologists in a flap by suggesting pterosaurs - the winged lizards beloved of toymakers and dino movies - were unable to fly, New Scientist says.
Katsufumi Sato of the University of Tokyo carried out an unusual study on the Crozet Islands, in the southern Indian Ocean, to test flying ability among large sea birds.
He attached accelerometers the size of AA batteries to the wings of 28 birds from five large species, including the wandering albatross, the world's biggest flying bird.
Albatrosses fly by riding shifting winds, thanks to wings spanning 3.5 metres whose shape can be varied to exploit each draft.
When there is no wind, or if the wind blows at a constant speed, the bird can only stay aloft by flapping its wings, otherwise it is forced down by gravity and air resistance.
In a months-long experiment, Sato's instruments showed that the seabirds had two flapping speeds - fast for taking off, and slow, for keeping aloft when the wind dies, New Scientist says.
The bird's flapping speed is limited by its muscle strength, and the speed decreases for heavier birds that have longer wings, Sato found.
Flying in zero winds
According to Sato's calculations, animals heavier than 40kg would be unable to flap fast enough to fly in zero winds.
A wandering albatross is fine, as it weighs 22kg - but the news is terrible for pterosaurs. Large ones would be unable to stay aloft, by this benchmark.
The largest pterosaur specimen found, Quetzalcoatlus northropi, had a wingspan of 11-12 metres and its weight is estimated to be in the order of 100kg.
Sato presented his results at a Biologging Science Symposium in Stanford University, California last month.
He has run into flak from pterosaur fans who are convinced that their creatures were "dynamic soarers" like the albatross and could sustain active flight and not just glide.
Differences in anatomy, physiology and environment must be taken into account when comparing the two sets of flyers, they say, according to the New Scientist report. ...News 24.com
by Jonathan Whitcomb
The two photos presented here are from s8int.com and were not an original part of this newsletter. They are presented here because it seemed to be a subject well suited to present them, and we decided to make one post rather than two. It is our assertion that this piece represents a pterosaur, which would certainly be anomalous (by 65 million years).
Photo 1: Antique art from Nigeria, from the book; "L'Oiseau Dans Ll'arte de Afrique L'Oues", (Birds in the art of West Africa)
Photo 2: The Nigerian piece compared with the fossil skulls of pterosaurs and with ancient drawing from Kalimantan.
Living-pterosaur investigations (including, but not limited to, sighting investigations) continue. These cryptozoological studies began around 1994, when Carl Baugh (of the Creation Evidence Museum, in Glen Rose, Texas) and missionary Jim Blume interviewed nationals (natives) on Umboi Island, Papua New Guinea.
Baugh was assisted by Paul Nation (also of that area of Texas) in the 1994 expedition. In 2004, the investigations continued with the expeditions of Jonathan Whitcomb, David Woetzel, and Garth Guessman, who explored Umboi and interviewed many eyewitnesses.
In late 2006, Paul Nation returned to Papua New Guinea, but not to Umboi Island. He was flown into a remote mountainous area of the mainland by the pilot Jim Blume. Nation had several night sightings of what the local villagers call "indava." He videotaped two lights that were similar to the glowing forms of Umboi Island (these kinds of creatures seem to have a bioluminescence).
In recent years, most investigations involve sightings in North American, especially the West Coast of the U.S.A.
The archive of the previous newsletter (011) (about a Southern California investigation and about the bat-ropen connection) is found at:
Newsletter 11 **********************************
Lines of Influence
Jim Blume interviewed many natives (late 20th Century). Blume was interviewed, by telephone, by Garth Guessman. Guessman gave a copy of the audiotaped interview to Whitcomb. Whitcomb included much of Blume's information in his book. The book ("Searching for Ropens") encouraged investigators to continue. Garth Guessman and David Woetzel began a new investigation (No. America).
Guessman & Woetzel were joined by Scott Norman, who saw a large pterosaur. Reports of Norman's sighting were believed by some cryptozoologists. Living-pterosaur investigations now have more credibility in cryptozoology.
Jim Blume assisted Carl Baugh with interviewing on Umboi. Baugh brought Paul Nation along on one of the expeditions. Nation returned, alone, to Umboi, in 2002, strengthening friendships. The friendly villagers (natives on Umboi) assisted Whitcomb in 2004.
Whitcomb updated Guessman and Woetzel on conditions on Umboi. Guessman and Woetzel arrived and interviewed other natives on Umboi Island. Those two Americans obtained much information, leading to a scientific paper. Woetzel's paper introduced living-pterosaur ideas to scientists in the U.S.
Woetzel's published paper lead Whitcomb to write for the same journal. Readers of the journal better realized the depth of the investigations. (Lines of influence are still to come in the scientific community)
Paul Nation instructed and prepared Whitcomb to explore Umboi Island. Whitcomb explored Umboi Island and interviewed eyewitnesses. Info. from Whitcomb's interviews were published in 1st edition of his book.
Book (1st ed.) influenced a businessman to help finance Nation's 2006 trip. Paul Nation's 2006 expedition resulted in videotape of indava light. Information on Nation's 2006 expedition was put into 2nd edition of the book.
Paul Nation obtained video footage of indava lights. Footage of indava lights was later analyzed by physicist Cliff Paiva. Paiva's analysis encouraged Whitcomb to write more web pages. Substantial number of web pages attracted attention of more eyewitnesses. New eyewitnesses enabled Whitcomb to continue interviewing: more data.
Paul Nation's videotaped indava lights encouraged Destination Truth. Destination Truth team obtained their own video of "ropen" light. Broadcast of Destination Truth introduced many Americans to the ropen. More American eyewitnesses are now open to being interviewed.
Duane Hodgkinson saw a giant flying "pterodactyl" in 1944. Hodgkinson told of his experience to Carl Baugh. Baugh accepted Hodgkinson's account, encouraging Hodgkinson. Hodgkinson contacted Whitcomb (2004) and told him much information. Whitcomb was encouraged to go to Papua New Guinea (Umboi). . . etc. Hodgkinson's openness allowed Guessman to give him a videotaped interview.
A portion of that video was put onto YouTube (online) by Whitcomb. Many thousands of YouTube watchers were introduced to living pterosaurs. Some YouTube viewers told Whitcomb about their own sightings.
(These are just a sample of many lines of influence.)
This Maori piece is from a time prior to the coining of the term "dinosaur" and certainly over a hundred years prior to accurate depictions of the brachiosaurus, even down to correctly depicting the creature as a plant eater.(Here the dinosaur or lizard is depicted with a mouthful of reeds).
So far, there are thought to be four types of sauropods, with corresponding head/skull shapes. This depiction closely matches the high head or raised skull of the brachiosaurus. One of the four skull types is shown here along with a side by side comparison ofthe piece with a modern drawing of brachiosaurus.
This item is identified as a lizard. It is said that the Maori feared the lizard. Perhaps it was because they were "terrible lizards) dino saurs. ;0). Offered here so that you can make up your own mind. Did these creatures really become extinct 40 million years ago? Or does this represent some plant eating, long necked lizard of normal dimensions whch were nervertheless, feared by the Maori?
“Property of a Private Collector
A Superb maori Ceremonial Adae, carved from a single piece of wood with fine opaque greenhouse adae insert in the wood and bound with numerous layers of overlapping fiber, the butt pierced through with square hole and carved as an openwork tiki with face highlighted by fine scrollwork and insert halotin shell eyes beneath a cylindrical shaft carved with a lizard in relief biting the lower jaw of a second tiki head carved in similar openwork and decorated with intricate repeating docrative motif, insert halotin shell eyes; exceptionally fine medium brown patina. Length 13 ¼ in (33.7 cm)
This adae was more than likely carved in the late eighteenth or early nineteenth century in the North Auckland or Taranaki style. The image of the lizard for the Maori is one of the most powerful symbols, referring to both life and death. The living was both feared and shunned because of it’s powers”.
Purchased by James Hooper in Manchester, 1925
James Hooper Collection
Published: Hooper and Burtana. The Art of Primitive Peoples, 1954
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