The museum describes this gold piece from the Tiwanaku, pre-columbian culture as zoomorphic. Zoomorphic; Having the shape, form, or likeness of an animal. Indeed it is a likeness of an animal, but what animal?
A.D. 200-A.D. 1000
If you believe that man and dinosaur missed each other by 40 million years, perhaps youll be firmly convinced that the animals here are mythological dragons or perhaps crocodiles.
Here at s8int.com, we have no problem believing that they represent dinosaurs.
Below left, is a sample of early dinosaur drawings made by scientists in the mid-1800s based on a number of large dinosaur bones that were being discovered in Europe and in the Americas. As you can see, though they are intended to represent iquanodon, they look very primitive in comparison to the modern drawing of iquanodon, also included.
These pre-columbian animals were sculpted between 200 A.D. and 1000 A.D., by artisans at least 850 years prior to the "scientific" dinosaur drawings shown here. Clearly, the scientists in the 1850's did not have the benefit of having seen the creatures alive as did the artisans of the Tiwanaku culture, whose dinosaurs are very close to being modern in their appearance.
In addition, we have two other precolumbian pieces on this page that provide evidence that at least in the Americas, dinosaurs and men co-existed and interacted.
Tiwanaku (Spanish spellings: Tiahuanaco and Tiahuanacu) is an important Pre-Columbian archaeological site in Bolivia.
Tiwanaku is recognized by Andean scholars as one of the most important precursors to the Inca Empire, flourishing as the ritual and administrative capital of a major state power for approximately five hundred years.
The ruins of the ancient city state are near the south-eastern shore of Lake Titicaca, about 72 km (44 miles) west of La Paz, Bolivia, centered at 16°33′17″S, 68°40′24″W.
Some have hypothesized that Tiwanaku's modern name is related to the Aymara term taypikala, meaning "stone in the center", alluding to the belief that it lay at the center of the world.
However, the name by which Tiwanaku was known to its inhabitants has been lost, as the people of Tiwanaku had no written language.
Architecture and art
Tiwanaku monumental architecture is characterized by large stones of exceptional workmanship. In contrast to the masonry style of the later Inca, Tiwanaku stone architecture usually employs rectangular ashlar blocks laid in regular courses, and monumental structures were frequently fitted with elaborate drainage systems. Bronze or copper "double-T" clamps were often used to anchor large blocks in place.
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The stone used to build Tiwanaku was quarried and then transported 40 km or more to the city. They were moved without the aid of the wheel, though much of the distance was over water.
The monumental architectural core of the city has been looted for treasure and mined for building stone for centuries, and buildings are in an advanced state of decay.
Some of the more important buildings have been excavated and at least partially restored. These include the Akapana and Puma Punku stepped platforms, the Kalasasaya and Putuni enclosures, and the Semi-Subterranean Temple.
These are the structures that are visible to the modern visitor.
The Tiwanaku art style is distinctive, and, together with the related Huari style, defines the Middle Horizon of Andean prehistory. Significant elements of both of these styles (the split eye, trophy heads, and staff-bearing profile figures, for example) seem to have been derived from that of the earlier Pukara culture in the northern Titicaca ..Wikipedia
"Type of Object: Vessel
Began to be developed in 1200 A.D. Decoration consists of polychrome painting in black and white on red. Designs include geometric motifs combined with fish and birds. Shapes include bottles with globular bodies and tall necks and with flaring rims, cups and pots"....
"By the Ica-Chincha culture one refers to art that reigned in the Ica, Chincha and two other south Peruvian river valleys in the years 1000-1476 A.D.
There is no full certainty as to the social structure of the culture, but apparently there was no strong central government.
The situation was probably similar to the period of the Nasca culture on the south coast of Peru: ceramics of the same type was made in the area of few river valleys, but no federation existed.
The Ica-Chincha art that is primarily known for ceramics, was influenced by the Wari art. The colours and materials used in the Ica-Chincha ceramics carried on the long traditions of the south coast.
Excluding the few fish and bird motifs, the ornamentation of the Ica-Chincha vessels is geometric, rectilinear and zonal, and it brings to mind a woven textile surface."....National Museum of Archaeology, Anthropology, and History of Peru
See Also: The Ica Stones
"Styracosaurus (pronounced /stɪˌrζkəˈsɔrəs/, meaning "spiked lizard" from Greek styrax/στυραξ 'spike at the butt-end of a spear-shaft' and saurus/σαυρος 'lizard') was a genus of herbivorous ceratopsian dinosaur from the Cretaceous Period (Campanian stage), about 76.5 to 75.0 million years ago.
It had four to six long horns extending from its neck frill, a smaller horn on each of its cheeks, and a single horn protruding from its nose, which may have reached dimensions of around 60 centimeters (2 ft) long and 15 centimeters (6 in) wide.
The function or functions of the horns and frills have been the subject of debate for many years.
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Styracosaurus was a large dinosaur, reaching lengths of 5.5 meters (18 ft) and weighing nearly 3 tons. It stood about 1.8 meters (6 ft) tall. Styracosaurus possessed four short legs and a bulky body.
Its tail was rather short. It also had a beak and flat cheek teeth, indicating that its diet was herbivorous. Like other ceratopsians, this dinosaur may have been a herd animal, traveling in large groups, as suggested by bonebeds.
Named by Lawrence Lambe in 1913, Styracosaurus is a member of the Centrosaurinae. Two species, S. albertensis and S. ovatus are currently assigned to Styracosaurus. Other species assigned to the genus have since been reassigned elsewhere"....Wikipedia
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Before the impact of the Chimϊ was fully felt, a style known as Chancay spread across three coastal valleys in northern Peru - Huaura, Chancay and Chillon.
The Chancay culture possessed a certain degree of political integration, but did not forge an organized state. Its architecture was undistinguished and produced in tapia (poured adobe).
Chancay ceramics were distinct, but rough in execution. Vessels were often large, and included egg-shaped jars and female effigies with short arms. They are usually characterized by black (and occasionally red) painting on a white slip with a matte finish.
The Chancay are known more for their textiles than for their ceramics. Textiles from elite Chancay tombs include elaborate gauzes, embroidery, painted plain weave and tapestry, and three-dimensional fibre sculptures.
Fine mesh-like openwork achieved a new level of artistry and skill. Women wore head cloths, with complex patterns of snakes and interlocked birds.
Many thousands of Chancay textiles are preserved in museums around the world, attesting to their prolific artistic output."..Virtual Museum of Canada
"The best-known of the Chancay artefacts are textiles that consist of embroidery work, paint-decorated fabrics, gauzes and three-dimensional groups of dolls. Among others, shades of yellow and brown, scarlet, white, lavender-blue and olive green were the colours used.
Birds and a deity wearing a crescent-like headdress have been the most popular decorative motifs. Thousands of Chancay textiles have been preserved to this day, so their ancient production must have been remarkably extensive.
Lambeosaurus, one of the many crested, "duckbilled" hadrosaurs. Click and Drag to Resize.
However, the quality of the textile material has not suffered from this, and the Chancay material is always well finished off and carefully made.
The Chancay ceramics is made with mould, matt-surfaced and almost without exception white and black. The Chancay vessels are often big and rather peculiar in form.
Especially a large egg-shaped jar is common. In addition to vessels, dolls that are quite big, too, and often represent the female sex have been made from clay.
Their face and often the upper part of the body have been covered with geometric ornaments. Geometric ornamentation and a strong simplification of animal and human motifs are part of the typical features of the Chancay ceramics"...Taide Museum
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