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Dinosaurs In Literature, History and Art:
Possible Pre-Columbian Contact with Ceratopsian Dinosaurs in South and Central America....Page 61

"LATE CRETACEOUS PERIOD: 65 million years ago: The horned ceratopians (also called ceratopsians) evolved late in the Cretaceous Period and were the last group of ornithischian (bird-hipped) dinosaurs to evolve before succumbing to a mass extinction after only 20 million years of existence"... paleodirect.com

"Have nothing to do with godless myths and old wives' tales; rather, train yourself to be godly"...1 Timothy 4:7

"Gravy boat" style ceramic, used in religious ceremonies.

Bolivia, Tiahuanaco, 500 - 700 AD. Museum fur Volkerkunde, Berlin.....Werner Forman Archive

Click and Drag Photo to resize. .

We say "possible" contact because it is not easy to identify creatures which we know today only through artists's conceptions based on anything from a few bones to an entire skeleton, when looking at what we presume to be artistic representations by eyewitnesses. Often, too we only have one photo to work from.

We believe that these three pieces represent eyewitness representations of ceratopsian dinosaurs, a group featuring hundreds if not thousands of diverse characteristics. An analogy might be perhaps identifying a pre-Hispanic representation correctly as a dog--and then further attempting to identify the specific breed.

Of course, it's up to you whether or not you agree that these artifacts are representations of ceratopsians, which after, all were supposedly extinct millions of years before "Columbus discovered America". (He didn't)

"Ceratopsia (Greek: "horned faces") is a group of herbivorous, beaked dinosaurs which thrived in what are now North America and Asia, during the Cretaceous Period, although ancestral forms lived earlier, in the Jurassic.

Early members such as Psittacosaurus were small and bipedal. Later members, including ceratopsids like Centrosaurus and Triceratops, became very large quadrupeds and developed elaborate facial horns and a neck frill.

While the frill might have served to protect the vulnerable neck from predators, it may also have been used for display, thermoregulation, or some combination of the above. Ceratopsians ranged in size from 1 meter (3 feet) and 23 kilograms (50 pounds) to over 9 m (30 ft) and 5,400 kg (12,000 lb).

Triceratops is by far the best-known ceratopsian to the general public. It is traditional for ceratopsian genus names to end in "-ceratops", although this is not always the case.

One of the first named genera was Ceratops itself, which lent its name to the group, although it is considered a nomen dubium today as it has no distinguishing characteristics that are not also found in other ceratopsians.

Ceratopsians are easily recognized by features of the skull. On the tip of a ceratopsian upper jaw is the rostral bone, a unique bone found nowhere else in the animal kingdom. Along with the predentary bone, which forms the tip of the lower jaw in all ornithischians, the rostral forms a superficially parrot-like beak.... Wikipedia.com

Here the Tiahuanaco "gravy boat's" stylized ceratops is compared with two modern artist's conception of the protoceratops, a hornless, short-frilled, ceratopsian dinosaur. Click and Drag Photo to resize. .

Also, the jugal bones below the eye are very tall and flare out sideways, making the skull appear somewhat triangular when viewed from above. This triangular appearance is accentuated, in later ceratopsians, by the rearwards extension of the parietal and squamosal bones of the skull roof, to form the neck frill".

Tiahuanaco Indians "Ancient Explorers"

By Jose Reyes 2/22/04

"High up at 13,300 Feet on the Peruvian-Bolivian Altiplano lies the remains of a mysterious civilization, Tiahuanaco, where many interesting questions have been raised and many interesting theories have surfaced throughout the years.

Tiwanaku, was it's original name but changed throughout the years to the present, Tiahuanaco. This civilization prospered before the Chimu Empire and the Inca Empire even existed. The actual time of existence is still an uncertainty.

Click and drag photo to resize.

The Indians of Tiahuanaco were Aymara Indians as evident by the language spoken in the region today and for thousands of years before, also by the architectural techniques used in building this flourishing metropolis.

See Also:Another Tiahuanaco
Civilization dinosaur?

.....The Tiahuanaco civilization successfully dominated, mainly because of their superior agricultural techniques in conjunction with their state-of-the-art irrigation system that was supplied by a major river source.

This river, now known as the Tiawanaco River, empties into the famous Lake Titicaca. Lake Titicaca would provide the Indians of Tiahuanaco with an ample supply of fish.

Though it was considered a myth, the people in the region always believed that there was a missing city, a so-called missing link, located on the floor of Lake Titicaca".

After recent investigations and recent discoveries, another section of this great empire was found.

After locating this section of the city, many theories have emerged concerning the actual period this unique society flourished and also from where these ancient explorers originated from.


Moche Culture (100 A.D. to 800 A.D.) Ceratopsian Representation?

Moche

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is clearly a depiction of the head of a short frilled ceratopsian dinosaur. The short frill is visible as well as the characteristic "snout horn" present on my of the ceratopsians. "Official" description follows:

"The following figure also presents/displays physical-muscular characteristics Neandertaloides and is using a mask. The article mentions that the scenes of violence to the naked one could seem horrifying ("grisly") but probably had a powerful religious meaning for the Moche Indians. Nicknamed: "the Decapitador", a ferocious supernatural creature has cut to a human head with "tumi" or ceremonial knife (Donated by C. B. and Benn N., "Masterworks of Art Reveal to Remarkable Pre-Inca World", 1990, National Geographic, 177(6):30-31): Click and Drag Photo to resize. .

"The Moche civilization (alternately, the Mochica culture, Early Chimu, Pre-Chimu, Proto-Chimu, etc.) flourished in northern Peru from about 100 AD to 800 AD.

Today it is understood that they were not politically the same people as the Chimϊ or the Lambayeque.

Scholars has proved that the Moche were not politically organized as monolithic empire or state but rather as a group of autonomous polities that shared a common elite cultural expressed mainly in the iconography.

Ancient artifact compared with styracosaurus and triceratops.
Click and drag photo to resize.

Pre-Columbian years as expansive as 300 BC to 1000 AD are sometimes described as the era of the Moche.

They are noted for the elaborate painted ceramics and pottery, gold work, and irrigation systems. Moche history is broadly categorized into five periods based on the increasing complexity of pottery decoration. Many Moche ceramic pieces, including their highly detailed erotic pottery, can be found at the Museo de la Nacion and the Museo Larco Herrera, both in Lima.

The Moche primarily were farmers, who diverted rivers into a network of irrigation canals. Their culture was sophisticated, although they had no written language. Yet, their artifacts document their lives with detailed scenes of hunting, fishing, combat, punishment, sexual encounters and elaborate ceremonies and harmony was a huge part of their celebrations.

The Moche lived in many valleys in the north coast of Peru: Lambayeque, Jequetepeque, Chicama, Moche, Viru, Chao, Santa, Nepena. Major Moche sites include Sipan, Pampa Grande, Dos Cabezas, Pacatnamu, San Jose de Moro, El Complejo El Brujo, Mocollope, Cerro Mayal, Complejo Huacas del Sol y de la Luna, Galindo, Huancaco, Panamarca, among others.

There are several Moche ruins not far from the city of Trujillo, Peru. The Huaca del Sol, a pyramidal structure on the Rio Moche, had been the largest pre-Columbian structure in Peru but was largely destroyed when Spanish Conquistadors mined its graves for gold.

Fortunately the nearby Huaca de la Luna seems to have been more important to the Moche and has remained largely intact. It contains many colorful murals with complex iconography and has been under excavation since the early 90's.


Sican/(Lambayeque)Culture Ceratopsian Representation

Sican Culture

Bottle with Mythic Figure, 10th–11th century
Peru; Sicαn (Lambayeque)
Ceramic; H. 6 1/2 in. (16.5 cm)
Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Jack Davis Neal, 1970 (1970.245.37)
Central and Southern Andes 1000-1400 A.D.
Click and Drag Photo to resize. .

The Sican Culture is the name archaeologists have given to a culture that predated the Inca in what is now the north coast of Peru between about 800-1300 AD.

Known for their skills in metallurgy, they produced alloys of gold, silver and arsenic-copper in unprecedented scales in pre-Hispanic America.

They made lost-wax gold ornaments and arsenical copper (alloys of several copper mixtures and arsenic that can be described as a brass type), which is the closest material to bronze found in prehistoric New World archaeology and is attributed to be the precursor of the brass age in the north of Peru.

The Sican were probably descendants of the Moche based on shared motifs in their artifacts. Other similar groups include Cajamarca, Wari and Pachacamac.

Remains found in the archaeological locations have determined that this culture maintained commercial exchange with populations from Ecuador (shells and snails), Colombia to the north (emeralds and amber), Chile to the south (blue stone), and seeds of gold extracted in the basin from the Maraρσn River to the east. The Lambayeque culture was one of those peoples.

Around A.D. 800 they created the city of Poma, located at Batan Grande, in the La Leche Valley. Between A.D. 900-1100 it grew to become the region's political and religious centre. The population of Batan Grande included many skilled metal workers.

The tombs of Batan Grande lords have held gold and silver keros (beakers), emeralds, pearls and mummy bundles with gold funerary masks along with semi-precious stones, shell and feathers. Other works in clay, wood inlaid with shell, and textiles depict sea birds, fish and scenes of Spondylus shell diving. These shells were collected further north in Ecuador.

When the Spanish arrived in the area, they documented that a top-level official was responsible for laying a red carpet of ground Spondylus shell powder before the ruler as he walked. Textiles from the Lambayeque valley show a combination of Moche, Wari and local elements such as characteristic eyes and crescent headdresses, sea motifs and slit tapestry.

"Mythic Creatures on Sican Vase compared with smaller
ceratopsians, bagaceratops and leptoceratops.
Click and drag photo to resize.

Around A.D. 1100, the site was abandoned and burned, and a new centre was established at Tϊcume (which was eventually conquered by the Chimϊ in A.D. 1350) and is associated with a great drought that lasted more than 30 years.

The peoples of the Sican culture used tumis, and it was at a site of their culture that the first tumis discovered in situ by archaeologists were found. Wikipedia.com

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