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The Boneyards: Excerpts from "Earth in Upheaval", by Velikovsky ...PAGE 5

"And every living substance was destroyed which was upon the face of the ground, both man, and cattle, and the creeping things, and the fowl of the heaven; and they were destroyed from the earth: and Noah only remained alive, and they that were with him in the ark". Genesis 7

"The great problem for geological theories to explain is that amazing phenomenon, the mingling of the remains of animals of different species and climates, discovered in exhaustless quantities in the interior parts of the earth so that the exuviae of those genera which no longer exist at all, are found confusedly mixed together in the soils of the most northerly latitudes. . . . The bones of those animals which can live only in the torrid zone are buried in the frozen soil of the polar regions.

And to quote one more contemporary, George Fairholme, who described similar evidence in Italy from the Arno River Valley:

In this sandy matrix bones were found at every depth from that of a few feet to a hundred feet or more. From the large and more apparent bones of the elephant, the rhinoceros, the megatherium, the elk, the buffalo, the stag, and so forth, naturalists were led by the elaborate studies of Cuvier and other comparative anatomists to the remains of the now living bear, tiger, wolf, hyena, rabbit, and finally the more minute remains even of the water rat and the mouse.

In some places so complete was the confusion . . . that the bones of many different elephants were brought into contact, and on some of them even oyster shells were matted"...... Catastrophe and Reconstitution Doorway Papers, by Arthur Custance

Immanuel Velikovsky is known as the "father" of catastrophism. In 1955 he wrote "Earth in Upheaval", using known but suppressed scientific data to make the case that the world had gone through universal "upheaval" instead of the gradualism and uniformism which is still the scientific paradigm, today.

Those looking at the history and geography of the earth usually fall into either the uniformism camp or the catastrophism camp. If you believe in the great flood of Noah, you believe that the history and geology of the world has included catastrophic occurances. Darwinists generally believe that the earth has a uniform history and that its' geology can be explained by a gradual, uniform build-up of sediments over eons of time.

"Experts had dismissed his previous works Worlds in Collision and Ages of Chaos as un-scientific. In response Velikovsky produced this landmark book about global catastrophes. It is pure, fully referenced, fact.

Anyone who reads this will probably dismiss the uniformatarian views of most scientists today, and embrace the more believable cataclysm theories....From a Review of the book.

Following are some interesting excerpts from the 1955 book in which Velikovsky uses science against "science".

Excerpts from "Earth in Upheaval"

(c) Doubleday 1955

Page 3 - "What could have caused the Artic Sea and the Pacific Ocean to irrupt and wash away forests with all their animal population and throw the entire mingled mass in great heaps scattered all over Alaska, the coast of which is no longer the Atlantic seaboard from Newfoundland to Florida?

Was it not a tectonic revolution in the earth's crust, that also caused the volcano's to erupt and to cover the peninsula with ashes?

In various levels of the muck, stone artifacts were found 'frozen in situ at great depths and in apparent association' with the Ice Age fauna, which implies that 'men were contemporary with extinct animals in Alaska.'

Worked flints, characteristically shaped, called Yuma points, were repeatedly found in the Alaskan muck, one hundred and more feet below the surface. One such spear point was found there 'between a lion's jaw and a mammoth's tusk.'

Similar weapons were used only a few generations ago by Indians of the Athapascan tribe, who camped in the upper Tanana Valley. It has also been suggested that even modern Eskimo points are remarkably Yuma-like, all of which indicates that the multitudes of torn animals and splintered forests date from a time not many thousands of years ago.

The Caves of England -Page 15,

In 1823, William Buckland, professor of geology at the University of Oxford, Published his Reliquiae diluvianae (Relics of the flood), with the subtitle, Observations on the organic remains contained in caves, fissures, and diluvial gravel, and other geological phenomena, attesting the action of an universal deluge.

Buckland was one of the great authorities on geology in the first half of the nineteenth century. In a cave in Kirkdale in Yorkshire, eighty feet above the valley, under a floor covering of stalagmites, he found teeth and bones of elephants, rhinoceroses, hippopotami, horses, deer, tigers (teeth of which were larger than those of the largest lion or Bengal tiger), bears, wolves, hyenas, foxes, hares, rabbits, as well as bones of ravens, pigeons, larks, snipe and ducks.

Many of the animals had died 'before the first set, or milk teeth, had been shed.'

. The idea which long prevailed, 'was, that they were the remains of elephants imported by the Roman armies. This is also refuted First by the anatomical fact of their belonging to extinct species of this genus, second, by their being usually accompanied by the bones of rhinoceros and hippopotamus, animals that could never have been attached to Roman armies: thirdly, by their being found dispersed over Siberia and North America, in equal or even greater abundance than in those parts of Europe which were subjected to the Roman power.'

The Aquatic Graveyards - Page 19-20,

In the red sandstone an abundant aquatic fauna is embedded. The animals are in disturbed positions. At the period of the past when these formations were composed, 'some terrible catastrophe involved in sudden destruction of the fish of an area at least a hundred miles from boundary to boundary, perhaps much more.

The same pattern in Orkney as at Comarty is strewed thick with remains, which exhibit unequivocally the marks of violent death. The figures are contorted, contracted, curved; the tail in many instances is bent around to the head; the pines stick out; the fins are spread to the full, as in fish that die in convulsions.

The Pterichthys shows its arms extended at their stiffest angle, as if prepared for an enemy. The attitudes of all ichthyolites {any fossil fish} in this platform are attitudes of fear, anger and pain. The remains, too, appear to have suffered nothing from the after-attacks of predacious fishes; none such seem to have survived. The record is one of destruction at once widely spread and total. . .' ~ a thousand localities disclose the same scenes of destruction.

The Asphalt Pit of La Brea - Page 64,

Beds of petroleum shale (rock of laminated structure formed by consolidation of clay), ascribed to the Tertiary Age, having in many places a thickness of about two thousand feet, extend from Cape Mendocino in northern California to Los Angeles and beyond, a distance of over four hundred and fifty miles. The asphalt of Rancho La Brea are an outcrop of this large bituminous formation.

Since 1906 the University of California has been collecting the fossils of Rancho La Brea, 'a most remarkable mass of skeletal material.' When found, these fossils were regarded as representing the fauna of the late Tertiary (Pliocene) or early Pleistocene (Ice Age).

The Pleistocene strata, fifty to one hundred feet thick, over lie the tertiary formations in which the main oil-bearing beds are found. The deposit containing the fossils consists of alluvium, clay, course sand and asphalt.

Most spectacular among the animals found at Rancho La Brea is the Saber-tooth tiger (Smilodon), previously unknown elsewhere in the new or old world, but found since then, in other places too. The canine teeth of this animal, over ten inches long, projected from his mouth like two curved knives. With this weapon the tiger tore the flesh of his prey.

The animal remains are crowded together in the asphalt pit in an unbelievable agglomeration. In the first excavation carried on by the University of California 'a bed of bones was encountered in which the number of saber-tooth and wolf skulls together averaged twenty per cubic yard.'
br>No fewer than seven-hundred skulls of saber-toothed tiger have been recovered.' Among other animals unearthed in this pit were bison, horses, camel, sloths, mammoths, mastodons, and also birds including peacocks.

To explain the presence of these bones in the asphalt, the theory was offered that the animals became entrapped in the tar, sank in it, and were imbedded when the tar hardened. However the large number of animals that filled this asphalt bed to overflowing is baffling.

Moreover the vast majority of them are carnivorous, whereas in any fauna the majority of animals would be herbivorous-otherwise the carnivores would have had no victims for their daily food-requires explanation.

Agate Spring Quarry - Page 67,

In Sioux county Nebraska, on the south side of the Niobrara River, in Agate Springs Quarry, is a fossil bearing deposit up to twenty inches thick. The state of the bones indicate a long and violent transportation before they reached their final resting place. '...the fossils are in such remarkable profusion, in places, as to form a veritable pavement of interlacing bones, very few of which are in their natural articulation with one another,' says R.S. Lull, director of the Peabody Museum at Yale, in his book on fossils.'

The profusion of bones in Agate Springs Quarry may be judged by a single block now in the American Museum of Natural History in New York, this block contains about a hundred bones to the square foot. There is no way of explaining an aggregation of fossils as a natural death retreat of animals of various genera.

The animals found were mammals. The most numerous was the small twin horned rhinoceros (Diceratherium). There was another extinct animal (Moropus) with a head not unlike that of a horse but with heavy legs and claws like that of a carnivorous animal. And bones of a giant swine that stood six feet high (Dinohyus hollandi) were also unearthed.

The Carnegie Museum, which likewise excavated in Agate Spring Quarry, in a space of 1350 square feet found 164,000 bones or about 820 skeletons. A mammal skeleton averages 200 bones. This area represents only one-twentieth of the fossil bed in the quarry, suggesting to Lull that the entire area would yield about 16,400 skeletons of the twin-horned rhinoceros, 500 skeletons of the clawed horse, and 100 skeletons of the giant swine.

A few miles to the east, in another quarry were found skeletons of an animal which, because of its similarity to two extant species, is called a gazelle camel (Stenomylus). A herd of these animals was destroyed in a disaster. ~ the transportation was in a violent cataract of water, sand, and gravel, that left marks on the bones. Tens of thousands of animals were carried over an unknown distance, then smashed into a common grave.

The catastrophe was most likely ubiquitous, for these animals-the small twin-horned rhinoceros, clawed horse, giant swine, and gazelle camel-did not survive, but became extinct. ~ the very circumstances in which they are found bespeak a violent death at the hands of the elements, not slow extinction in a process of evolution.

`In many other place of the world similar finds have been made in the United States ~ In Switzerland a conglomerate of bones of animals that belong to different climates and habitats were found in Kesslerloch near Thayngen: Alpines types are there in one 'Tiergemiosh' with animals of the steppe and of the forest and fauna. In Germany a gravel pit at Neukoln (a suburb of Berlin)"

Extinction - Page 226,

In numerous places of the world the bone content of caves indicates that they served as hide-outs in times of supreme danger. Lions and tigers, wolves and hyenas, gazelles and hares shared the refuge and there found their common grave. But not all places where such assemblages of bones are discovered were sought for refuge.

In many cases the animals were swept from large areas by a tidal wave and thrown against rocks. And the water rushing through the fissures left behind the animals with all their bones broken within their torn bodies.

From as far as China, to England and France and the islands of the Mediterranean, examples of fissures of fissures with bones, splintered and mingled together, have been presented in the book.

Not only fissures in the rocks but caverns in the hills may have been filled with bones, though the caverns might not have been sought for shelter. An irrupting sea or great lake, lifted from its bed and carrying its own detritus and land debris, swept heterogeneous herds of animals and carried then to the farthest reaches and threw over them hills of gravel, rock and earth.

Cumberland cave, described on an earlier page, is one of many examples.

Pg. 60 ~

....the bones of Cumberland cavern were 'for the most part much broken, yet show no sign of being water born. ~ also it happened that animals of northern regions-wolverine and lemming, the long-tailed shrew, mink, red-squirrel, muskrat, porcupine, hare and ell-were heaped together with animals 'suggesting warmer climatic conditions'-peccary, crocodilid, and tapir.

Animals that now live on the western coast of America-coyote, badger and puma like cat-are in this assemblage. ~ 'This is truly a peculiar assemblage of animals'... Extinct animals are found there with extant forms.}

If bones are found rolled, they were mostly carried from afar, and were from animals that had died long before; if bones are more or less intact, the chances that the place was a shelter that failed; and if the bones are splintered, it is highly probably that the animals were smashed by a great force against rocks or resisting ground.

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