On the top left is a beautiful mosaic (also shown on page 1) that was one of the wonders of the second century world. Called the Nile Mosaic of Palestrina, it depicts Nile scenes from Egypt all the way to Ethiopia.
I came across the mosaic in a book called the "Light of the Past", combing through books in an old bookstore. I had never even heard of the Nile Mosaic at Palestrina.
Since I posted it on my own old site, along with two others from the same book, I've seen it on several other sites.
My philosophy is and was that old art books might be a good place to find these types of anomalies because it appears that they have been weeded out of newer materials. It is still very difficult to find an image of the mosaic anywhere on the internet. Thanks to Genesis Park for pointing out that the warriors were likely Ethiopians rather than Egyptians as I had initially stated. Another view of the Palestrina Mosiac
Scholars now believe this is the work of Demetrius the Topographer, an artist from Alexandria who came to work in Rome. The top portion of this remarkable piece of art is generally believed to depict African animals being hunted by black-skinned warriors.
These "Ethiopians" are pursuing what appears to be some type of dinosaur. The Greek Letters embedded in the mosaic above the reptilian animal in question are: KROKODILOPARDALIS which is literally translated Crocodile-Leopard.
The picture shown here is only a small portion of the massive mosaic. It also contains clear depictions of known animals, including Egyptian crocodiles and hippos. (Finley, The Light of the Past, 1965, p. 93.) The photo on the right highlights a crocodile on the mosaic (some had suggested the dino was just a badly drawn croc).
The next image on the left is from the same book, "The Light of the Past". It shows what can only be pterosaurs flying high above.
At this time, the term dinosaur had not yet been coined. One should judge for oneself the accuracy of the pterosaur likeness.
The drawing itself is from a 17th century German tract about the dangers of witches and witchcraft. Witches are accused of causing houses to spontaneously combust. The pterosaurs depicted flying in the background, with characteristic headcrests and tails, were apparently associated with witchcraft--they were called dragons.
(Trevor-Roper, "The Persecution of Witches," 1965.) Many accounts from that time period describe creatures that sound suspiciously like pterodactyls/pterosaurs.
From my reading, pterosaurs were "common" and as you'll read in other accounts in this section were seen by quite a few people, flew in swarms.
The Rhamphorhynchoid Pterosaur Scaphognathus crassirostris: A "Living Fossil" Until the 17th Century
Here are a few excerpts from an excellent article by John Goertzen, M.S,.on a type of Pterasaur which flourished until the 17th century. The author presents conclusive evidence; through accurate historical descriptions, literature, ancient coins, seals and ancient drawings which indicate that this particular dinosaur, and others were actual living entities.
Author: John Goertzen Subject: Dinosaurs
"There is evidence that pterosaurs may have flown the skies a couple thousand years ago. There are numerous depictions precise enough to identify the pterosaur species, Scaphognathus crassirostris, from several cultures of antiquity. Since that species is the only long-tailed species with a head crest, it is readily identified. Written accounts provide additional information about the ecological niche of these animals and (for Luther and the scientists Alpin) details that are consistent with the pictorial iconography.
......... The S. is easily identified since it is the only long tailed pterosaur with a head crest. Both fossils, currently known, were found in the Solnhofen limestone in southern Germany and display a skeletal head crest. Because the S. is the only rhamphorhynchoid pterosaur with a head crest, ancient artifacts enable us to tell what the soft tissue of the head crest looked like and identify ancient S. representations with a high degree of confidence.
...The remarkable thing about this animal is that it was depicted in several cultures of antiquity. Artifacts identified with this interesting pterosaur species include Roman-Alexandrian coins, an Arabia-Philistia coin, a French wood carving, a German statue and coin, several Middle Ages picture maps, and an enlightening sketch of a mounted animal in Rome by the scientists Meier-shown here on the right.
A dragon was said to live in the wetlands near Rome in December, 1691. The animal lived in a cave and terrorized the local population. A sketch of the skeleton has survived in the possession of Ingegniero Cornelio Meyer. The most remarkable thing about the animal is the clear head crest and the dual piece of skin from the crest.
Five digits were clearly visible for each foot, of the proper length and with the first shorter and offset from the rest as is proper for the S.. The upper arm bone can be seen at the front of the wing as well as the hint of the prototagium (in front of the lighter colored upper arm of the near wing).
There is a hint of a wing claw on the far wing where it curves forward. The tail vane is not visible, however that is not a skeletal feature and the dermal layer does not appear to have been preserved there......"
The fuller fasinating article and additional artifacts can be found at: Scaphognathus crassirostris--Living Fossil Into the 19th Century, By John Goertzen: The Revolution Against Evolution
Apatosaurus (sauropod)on Mesopotamian Cylinder Seal (and pterosaurs?)
The art on the left is a Mesopotamian Cylinder Seal from approximately 3300 B.C. (Moortgart, Anton, The Art of Ancient Mesopotamia, 1969, plate 292., presumably seen by the artist. The animal on the right is an artists conception from a skeleton of an Apatasaurus. There are many striking similarities between these two animals. Those legs could not be mistaken for that of any other type of animal other than one of the saurapods.
The biggest difference is at the head. One should be reminded that this particular dino went by the name brontosauras previously and wore the wrong head for 100 years. As it is, only one purported head of the Apatosaurus has been found.
Its entirely possible that the head looked more like the one on the Mesopotamian relief than the one on the right in the artists conception.
Cartilage forming the shape of the head and ears (which probably did not survive the years)no doubt is only suggested by the skeleton itself. To see a larger version of this animal depiction, Click here.
Also see the Thai version from the first century on an upcoming page. As for the musculature, in my view the trunk of the animal on the left is much more "realistic" --its drawn with more realism than is the artist rendition on the right--and again, one has to ask where the artist got the model to draw so convincingly the trunk of a saurapod?
Whatever you may think of the head, and perhaps it could be stylized or from another animal but the trunk of the body is obviously, conspicuously and unexplainably that of a sauropod.
The Acambaro, Mexico, Figurines
Another intriguing discovery was made near Acambaro in the Mexican state of Guanajuato. In 1925 Waldemar Jusrud, a Danish storekeeper, was on an inspection tour of his ranch, when he noticed a small ceramic figurine projecting from the side of a rut in the rain-washed road.
The artifact was unlike any he had ever seen, and probing further, "he began to uncover additional models of people and animals resembling those portrayed on the Ica stones, the GIANT SUARIANS of the Jurassic period of millions of years ago" . .
Julsrud eventually was able to amass 33,000 of them. "The human figures and the animals were frequently portrayed together. Some of the DINOSAUR-LIKE REPTILES appear with women in nonviolent or nonhunting situations, as though they were domestic animals or pets.
The human figures show details of dress somewhat resembling those of the ancient Middle East: laced sandals, chain mail, shields, and a variety of weapons" (Berlitz, p.195-196). Acambaro Figurines
"The Acambaro collection comprises hundreds of clay figurines that are apparently thousands of years old; however, they depict such bizarre animals and scenes that most archaeologists dismiss them as an elaborate hoax.
The collection shows humans interacting with dinosaurs and various other “monsters” such as horned men. Both Hapgood and Earl Stanley Gardner were convinced that the figurines from Acambaro were authentic ancient artifacts that indicated that men and dinosaurs had cohabited together in the recent past, and that dinosaurs had not become extinct many millions of years ago as commonly thought.
David Hatcher Childress writes a lengthy introduction concerning Acambaro, the latest testing, and other evidence of “living” dinosaurs."..From Mystery In Acambaro by Charles Hapgood.