Revisiting The Stones of Ica
"So God created the Great Dragons"
...Genesis 1:21 The Latin Vulgate; 5th Century
In the whole -did dinosaurs co-exist with man- “controversy”, the Ica Stones are the smoking gun. More than that really--they're a mushroom cloud over the notion that dinosaurs died out millions of years before man even “evolved”. In this section of the website; Dinosaurs in Literature, Art and History, I believe we’ve already proven to the open minded that dinosaurs did in fact live with and “interact” with man. If you’re a Christian, we shouldn’t have had to convince you of that. The Ica stones are an archaeological treasure trove. They are in general beautiful works of art with themes seen in some of the other ancient Peruvian art we’ve examined on these pages.
Dr. Jose Cabrera, whose Father began collecting the stones in the 1930’s now has over 11,000 of these ancient artifacts in his museum, which are engraved stones of varying sizes, which depict: advanced astronomical scenes, advanced medical knowledge,- including heart transplants and brain surgery and many scenes showing dinosaur and man interacting.
Fully one third of the stones portray known dinosaur types; some displaying characteristics in the 1960’s (when the existence of the stones became “generally known”), which predated our current understanding of how these animals looked.
These stones show scenes of man controlling, killing or being killed by dinosaurs (a term first used in the mid-1800’s). As seen below, some of the scenes depicted appear to be of mechanical contrivances that remind us of Pascal’s tomb lid.
Ica Stone Etching from: Le Pietre di Ica, by Cornelia Petratu & Bernard Roidinger.
These stones show signs of being of great age, such as oxidation. Rocks cannot be carbon dated but as we relate below a number of experts have given their opinion as to the age of these stones as being between 1,500 and 12,000 years old. Conventional science and archaeologists have either ignored these enigmatic stones or condemned them as fakes. They have refused to cooperate with any scientific analyses of the stones and in general act as if they wish they’d go away.
No doubt some stones have been forged in recent years for profit, but everything -to super bowl tickets to Greek and Roman antiquities have been counterfeited and yet we all tend to still believe that most of the items are real.
When it comes to ancient Greek and Roman antiquities science is willing to analyze them to determine their age and their provenance because they do not threaten the paradigm like these artifacts do.
“The Indian chronicler, Juan de Santa Cruz Pachachuti Llamgui wrote that at the time of the Peru-tomb Pachachuti many carved stones were found in the Kingdom of Chperu-tomb, in Chinchayunga, which were called "Manco." (Juan de Santa Cruz Pachacuti Llamqui: "Relacion de antique dades d'este reyno del Peru.")
The reference to "Chinchayunga" was the low country of the central coast of Peru, where Ica is located today. "Manco" is believed to be a corruption of the Aymara word "malku" which means "Chieftain" or "Lord of vassals." It is noted that some of these stones were taken back to Spain. The chronicler of the Peru-tombs wrote in about 1570.” …Dr. Don Patton
Dr. Cabrera, who ran a museum showcasing the artifacts before his death, was a professor of medicine and the head of his department at the University of Lima, estimates that considering his own collection, other collections with which he was aware, that as many as 50,000 of these artifacts have been found.
Dr. Cabrera accepted the theory of evolution, but believed that the stones belonged to a race of advanced man who lived millions of years ago. Christians would disagree with his theories about the artifacts, but at least the stones don’t make us run and hide like they do materialist science.
Mainstream scientists have only to hear that they depict man interacting with known types of dinosaurs to conclude with eyes closed and ears plugged—that they are fakes. To be fair, Christians shouldn’t accept them as genuine simply because they reinforce what we believe but all should welcome an honest, scientific analysis of the artifacts. They are what they are, enigmatic, mysterious, beautiful and ubiquitous -— and very possibly ancient.
Excerpts From: The Message of the Stones", by Dr. Javier Cabrera
The book can be purchased online in English or Spanish here: Message of the Stones
Ica Stone Etching from: Le Pietre di Ica, by Cornelia Petratu & Bernard Roidinger.
360 kilometers south of Lima - capital of Peru - in the coastal province of Ica, there were discovered in 1961 some strange and mysterious stones shaped somewhat like river rocks. The strangeness, the mystery of the stones was that they pictured animals, men and ways of life very different from those previously discovered by students of the classical cultures of Peru.
The stones came from Ocucaje, an agreeable little town located 40 kilometers south of Ica. In this region, underground, are to he found innumerable graves of men who lived in the times of the Inca and before; lying on the surface of the earth are petrified remains of both tiny and huge prehistoric animals.
Ocucaje lies in an immense desert criss-crossed by mounds of ancient rocks, perhaps the oldest on the planet. There, in the solitude of the desert landscape, testimonials to the recent past and the ancient past lie side by side.
And if it were not for the small fields that arise on either side of the river - dry most of the year - that crosses the desert, it might be said that this part of the world had died, that time stopped here.
The strange stones were found by the peasants of Ocucaje. Ocucaje lies in the zone where since the beginning of the century the finest ancient textiles and ceramics have been unearthed, and the peasants have dedicated themselves, generation after generation, to the clandestine practice of searching for artifacts.
On a clear night, armies of men armed with picks, their faces covered so as not to breath the stench of the graves, protected by amulets to defend them against evil spirits, with the silence as their only witness, perform the enigmatic task of literally uncovering the past.
For long hours these moving shadows people the desert; if someone unaware of what they were doing should happen to surprise them at their work, he would think that the dead had abandoned their endless sleep to arise from the grave and take up their lives where death had interrupted them in some unknown moment so long ago.
Dr. Cabrera. Source: http://www.piedrasdeica.com/Biologia.htm.
The unusual figures engraved on the stones amazed the archeologists who saw them: they could not he reconciled with what was known of the men who had lived in ancient Peru, and they toppled all knowledge that had been pieced together regarding that era.
Doubt about the authenticity of the stones was their first response. Loyal to the notion that the oldest human beings in Peru dated from no more than 20,000 years ago and that only 3,000 years ago was there an advanced civilization to he found in the region, they could not admit the hypothesis that the stones might be evidence of a civilization much older than the classical cultures of Peru, that is to say, older than the Incas or the Pre-Incas.
The incredulity of the archeologists was communicated to the cultural authorities of the country. The engraved stones of Ica, which kept appearing and finding their way into private collections, were passed over by the archeologists and other specialists.
Carlos and Pablo Soldi, who had collected the first stones that appeared in Ocucaje repeatedly requested that their specimens be studied, but the experts decided to ignore their persistent petitions.
In 1966, an architect named Santiago Agurto Calvo carried out excavations in the graves of Ocucaje to try to determine if the engraved stones, of which he had a substantial collection acquired years before, came from them.
Santiago Agurto Calvo was able to find some specimens which led him to believe that the stones had been carved by pre-Incaic man. It was the first time that the exact provenance of some specimens was known.
But despite this conformity with the demands of the science of archeology, archeologists were still not interested in studying the stones.
REAL OR FAKES
This "Andean Camel" is actually a corythosaurus.
........At this point in my investigations I must confess I was surprising myself at every turn. The engraved stones of Ica were revolutionizing paleontology and radically changing the date of the appearance of culture and intelligent men on earth.
One question remained: Was it possible that the engraved stones of Ica were somehow being manufactured by modern man? I remembered the assertion made by the Director of the Museo Regional of Ica that the peasants of Ocucaje were making them. The assertion strained credulity, since these are simple people who totally lack the specialized understanding of science that can be seen in the stones.
Possibly the stones were not manufactured by peasants but by one or two men who did possess such understanding and who had the stones carved with the intention of selling them.
Despite the fact that I knew from Herman Buse’s account that these stones had been sold since 1961 for very little, amounts that would not even come close to compensating the enormous trouble they cost, I decided that I must have laboratory confirmation of the age of the stones.
THE LABORATORY CONFIRMS THE STONES' ANTIQUITY
ICA Stones of Peru
It was in the month of May, l967, and one day I selected from my collection 33 stones, among them a few that showed the reproductive cycle of long-extinct animals, which I knew would be controversial if their authenticity could not be established.
I went to my friend Luis Hochshild, a learned mining engineer and Vice-President of the Mauricio Hochshild Mining Co., based in Lima. I asked if his laboratories could perform an analysis that would determine the nature of the stone and the antiquity of the engravings.
At the beginning of June I received a report from the laboratory, in a document signed by the geologist Eric Wolf which stated:
This is unquestionably natural stone shaped by fluvial transport (river rock). Petrologically I would classify them as andesites. Andesites are rocks whose components have been subjected mechanically to great pressure which causes chemical changes to take place. In this case the effects of intense sericitation (transformation of feldspar into sericite) are obvious.
This process has increased the compactness and specific weight, also creating the smooth surface that ancient artists preferred for carving.
I will try to confirm this preliminary opinion by means of a more detailed test in the laboratories of the Engineering School and of the University of Bonn, West Germany. The stones are covered with a fine patina of natural oxidation which also covers the engravings by which their age should be able to be deduced.
I have not been able to find any notable or irregular wear on the edges of the incisions which leads me to suspect that these incisions or etchings were executed not long before being deposited in the graves or other places where they were discovered.
Lima, 8 June 1967.
This analysis revealed three important facts: a) The engraved stones have a higher specific gravity than common river rocks found in riverbeds and beaches, which I had guessed as soon as I first held one in my hand;
b) The engravings are old, to judge by the coating of natural oxidation that covers the incisions as well as the stones themselves; and
c) The stones were engraved not long before being deposited in the spots where they were found, to judge by the absence of wear on the edges of the incisions, which means that the stones were not engraved for utilitarian or even artistic purposes, but rather to be deposited in a safe place - for some unknown reason.
One year before, Santiago Agurto Calvo had published the results of a petrological analysis of the engraved stones in his collection. These results were part of the newspaper article mentioned earlier, in which he discussed the discovery of engraved stones in the Ocucaje zone.
Specifically, the article dealt with some specimens that he had purchased in 1962 from huaqueros which, according to him, contained "unidentifiable things, insects, fish, birds, cats, fabulous creatures and human beings, sometimes apart and other times shown together in elaborate and fantastic compositions".
He had entrusted the analysis to the mining Faculty of the Universidad Nacional de Ingeneira and it had been performed by two engineers, Fernando de las Casas and Cesar Sotillo.
Since the analysis I had commissioned promised that the preliminary study would be followed up by a closer examination in the laboratories of the Universidad Nacional de Ingeneira de Peru and the University of Bonn, I decided to compare the analysis of my stones with that of the stones of Agurto. The analysis of Agurto's stones read:
All the stones are highly carbonized andesites, despite their coloration and texture, which suggest a different nature.
The stones come from lava flows dating from the Mesozoic era, characteristic of the zone where they were found. The surface has weathered, and feldspar has been turned into clay, weakening the surface and forming a kind of shell around the interior of the stones.
This shell measures an average of grade 3 on the Mohs scale (which measures the comparative capacity of a substance to scratch another or be scratched by another) and up to 4 1/2 in the part not so affected by weathering.
The stones can be worked with any hard material such as bone, shell, obsidian, etc., and naturally, by any prehispanic metal implement.
…..THE MYSTERY OF ACAMBARO
The North American scientist Charles H. Hapgood, a dedicated archeologist, revealed in 1973 the results of his laborious study of an extraordinary collection of 32,000 artifacts, the property of the German collector Waldemar Julsrud.
The collection is composed of ceramics, carved wooden objects, and engraved stones all from the region around Acambaro, in central Mexico. Looking at the color reproductions of many of these objects, one notes that the images of human beings do not resemble the inhabitants of the region in particular or the American Indian in general; and the animal images seem to be fantastic, though some species of extinct animals can be discerned.
We see oriental, negroid, and aryan human types, and we see, among the identifiable prehistoric animals, anthropoids, anteaters, crabs, horses, camels, crocodiles, and various species of dinosaur, including the stegasaurus, corinthosaurus, tyranosaurus, plesiosaurus, brontosaurus, and pelicosaurus.
For over twenty years archeologists thought these pieces were fakes. In support of this hypothesis they pointed out that 1) never before had so many pieces been found in so small an area; 2) never before had such delicate and fragile objects been preserved underground in such pristinity; 3) the objects made reference to unknown cultures; 4) the absence of patina and the accumulation of saltpeter was inexplicable, and 5) the depiction of dinosaurs was further proof that the etchings were phony.
The suggestion that the pieces were of recent manufacture, and that the person who manufactured them was Odilon Tinajero, a resident of Acambaro, who had sold specimens to the collection with the assurance that they were unearthed by him and his family. But doubts remained: the collection contained pieces that demonstrated considerable knowledge on some themes, such as the customs and legends of the Indian people, and rare and exotic extinct animals; many also showed extraordinary artistic ability.
But Odilon Tinajeros scarcely knew how to read and write and like the rest of his family had never exhibited any talent for things artistic.
Hapgood enlisted the services of a famous expert in the detection of falsifications. It had already been established that the pieces had been fired in an open oven, and given the sheer quantity of pieces that existed, this oven would have had to have been kept going day and night over a long period of time which would in turn have required copious firewood.
The investigations carried out by the expert, the municipal authorities, and by a local professor, however, conclude that:
1) Odilon Tinajero did not own an oven;
2) no one had seen smoke that might reveal the functioning of such an oven, and
3) there was not sufficient clay in the area to permit the firing of the thousands of specimens. Beyond this, Odilon Tinajero was selling the pieces at a price which would not have covered the investment needed to fabricate them.
Hapgood turned to laboratory analysis in order to try to verify the age of the pieces. The analysis - using radiocarbon dating and the thermoluminescent method - certified that the pieces were old.
The first method gave an age of 6,400 to 3,500 years, and the second, for some pieces, an age of 4,500 years. Thus was Hapgood able to demonstrate the archeological value of this incredible collection, ending a long period of doubt and incredulity.
……..THE MYSTERY OF OCUCAJE
The checkered history of the Acambaro collection is not unlike the history of the Engraved Stones of Ica, the gliptoliths(Cabreras name for the stones). Skepticism among archeologists regarding the authenticity of the Acambaro pieces lasted twenty years, and the same skepticism has animated Peruvian archeologists where the gliptoliths are concerned.
The difference between the Acambaro and Ica case is that in the latter case the doubt has not yet been dispelled.
Since 1961 when, according to the Peruvian scholar Herman Buse, the engraved stones first appeared in Ocucaje, constant efforts have been made, in vain, to enlist the help of Peruvian archeologists in verifying the authenticity of the stones.
First to try were the Soldi brothers, who put together the first collection of stones bought from the huaqueros of Ocucaje. Even though the Soldis mistakenly thought the stones were made by the Incas, this does not diminish the persistence with which they requested official tests to prove what they were already sure of: that the stones were not of recent manufacture.
Herman Buse reports in his 1965 book that one of the brothers – Pablo - said that the existence of a thick layer of saltpeter covering the specimens could not be explained except by the passage of considerable time, and he added that the huaqueros who had found the stones were willing to take archeologists to the places were they had been discovered, to show them that this was not a hoax.
Buse says that the other brother – Carlos - could not believe that anyone would have gone to the trouble to manufacture the stones only to sell them at the ridiculously low prices which the Soldis had paid. But when Peruvians archeologists heard of the Soldi collection, they immediately assumed a posture of incredulity, and they would not accompany the huaqueros to the excavations.
Several years later, in 1966, Santiago Agurto Calvo felt the need to verify the authenticity of the stones that kept appearing in Ica, and he began to carry out excavations, first on his own and later in the company of the archeologist Alejandro Pezzia Assereto, director of the Museo Regional of Ica. Agurto Calvo had a collection of several hundred stones which he had put to test in the laboratories of the Faculty of Mining at the Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria.
As we saw in Chapter One, these tests revealed that the stones came from lava layers dating from the Mesozoic era (frau 230 to 63 ruillion years ago), and one feature was the relative softness of the stones surface. Based on this characteristic, Agurto Calvo speculated that the stones may have come from the time of the Incas or Pre-Incas, since the tools used by these cultures would have been capable of executing the engravings on this type of stone.
The excavations he made in Pre-Incas graves finally bore fruit: he found two samples, similar to those that made up his collection. This convinced him that there was no doubt as to the authenticity of the stones, and he declared them to be ancient, by virtue of having found specimens next to known remains and ceramics belonging to Pre-Inca man.
The newspaper article in which Agurto Calvo reported his labors and his discovery concluded with these words: "To the fundamental question - are they false, or are they real-? which it has been my fortune to be able to answer, other questions flow which are equally provocative but even more difficult to answer.
I am certain that the scholars and archeologists of the nation will give them prompt attention which will satisfy our curiosity and enrich the history and culture of Peru"
Two years later, in 1968, the archeologist Pezzia Assereto, who had accompanied Agurto Calvo, published a book on the archeology of the province of Ica, in which he makes note of the discovery: "Agurto was able after several attempts to find an engraved stone inside a tomb in the sector of Toma Luz of the Hacienda Callango del Valle in Ica on 20 August 1966...
After informing the Museo Regional of Ica of such an important find, Agurto and I made another excavation on 11 September of the same year, in the hill called Uhle of the sector of La Banda in the Hacienda Ocucaje, and we found for the first time an engraved stone inside a tomb of the Paracas culture, a thing I was not expecting, but which proved, by association, the authenticity of these artifacts".
Despite the fact that the Engraved Stones of Ica had been proven to be authentic archeological specimens, the cultural authorities of the central government remained indifferent. The discovery of Agurto Calvo alone should have been sufficient not only for the order to go out that the stones in existing collections be studied immediately, and not only that excavations in search of new specimens should be undertaken, but also that an end should be put to the illegal commerce in the stones.
But none of this was done. Not even the collection of Carlos Soldi was studied, and on his death it passed to the Museo Regional of Ica, according to his wishes. It was at this time that I began to dedicate myself to increasing the stones in my own collection, buying specimens from some other collectors in Ica from whom I had acquired the stones I already possessed - and later - acquired them from the huaqueros of Ocucaje.
In 1972 Herman Buse again brought up the issue of the engraved stones, at a moment when many national and foreign archeologists were convening in Lima at the First Congress of Andean Archeology.
In an article published in the Lima daily El Comercio, written with the obvious purpose of pointing out to the participants in the Congress their obligation to give an official opinion on the stones in light of the absence of such an opinion so far, Buse discusses the unofficial opinions which had been circulating regarding the archeological validity of the stones.
He points to the incredulity of the archeologists, and marshalls the arguments of those who believe in the authenticity of the stones, and of those who do not. Buse casts doubt on the latter arguments:
"The Cabrera collection, which is on display in the city of Ica, is composed of no fewer than 10,000 of these stones. 10,000 falsifications? Many of them purchased for only a couple of soles? Can such a price be explained given the delicate, complicated, difficult work involved?"
He adds: "Other responsible men believe in them, in their legitimacy and certifiable antiquity. For this reason it seems strange that professional archeologists reject theme out of hand."
But the experts participating in the Congress paid no attention to Buse, and once more we see the inexplicable lack of interest on the part of archeologists in studying the stones and determining their authenticity.
Cont...From Left Column. Surely, no uneducated farmer could even begin to fathom such things? Then the sheer number of stones became apparent. The farmer finally admitted that he had sold them for some time, perhaps thousands of them, before he became famous. The doctor currently owns 11,000 stones (at latest count) and estimates the total in existence to be about 15,000.
Even if one were to accept the unlikely notions that this man understood surgery, art, carving stone, and the history of the Incas..., and dinosaurs, and flying reptiles..., and a host of other disciplines, all of which is most improbable; there is the issue of simple math for one man to carve 15,000 stones would mean:
1. he began as a teenager;
2. he carved one stone a day;
3. he continued this 7 days a week for 41 years without missing a single day.
To refute this simple logic would mean:
1. he carved more than one a day (impossible to even do one);
2: he had help and lots of it'
3: they came from someone else.
Even if one accepts the idea that he had help in the hills, other farmers or such, the pure knowledge of the scenes would deny that any group of people could possess the wide scientific knowledge to complete the accurate details.
Dr. Cabrera, by then a trusted friend of the farmer, learned that the man was released from prison once he signed the confession that he was cheating the tourists. He agreed not to pretend the stones came from the hills but that he had indeed carved them himself. It was either that or go to prison for selling government possessions (the international antiquity laws).
The story, however, died the death of all shams and no reputable investigator would be stained by falling for the same hoax. BBS had been ridiculed beyond belief, and had thoroughly and painfully apologized to their public for airing the sham.
Meanwhile, the doctor continued his research with geologists to interpret the maps on several stones showing a weird configuration of the world. Some angles and land masses looked vaguely familiar, but the majority were badly skewered into strange shapes.
Geologists have confirmed that based on current computer projections, the shapes indicated on the rocks are indeed accurate for the planet earth, as it was, about 13,000,000 (million) years ago, and as seen from above!!!!
I have seen several of these photos, they are not some weird, distorted collection of vague notions, but very clear and distinct carvings showing land masses and oceans.
Now, Dr. Cabrera had a real problem. A farmer insists that he carved the stones himself and therefore, Cabrera has had no success in getting anyone to take the stones seriously. At first, the doctor was only considering the aspect that his stones dated back to the Incas, or pre-Columbian era. But now, his stones appear to be 13 million years old, not a mere few thousand. This would be pre-stone age!!!
How on earth could this man convince anyone of stature to even look at the stones, with their brief history in the press, much less consider them to predate stone-age man ???
The doctor maintains he has two enormous problems in getting anyone to take him seriously. One, there are so many stones. Like diamonds, we expect anything of value to be rare and difficult to obtain. There are thousands of the things just sitting around in Ica.
Second, and this is the real issue, one would have to accept the notion that some highly-intelligent form of man occupied this planet millions of years before the first known man could even swing a club. This is simply not acceptable.
I've seen several photos of stones showing men in robes riding flying reptiles and dinosaurs, very similar to the animals and reptiles shown in the movie, "Jurassic Park." To accept this concept would invalidate every book ever written about ancient man, and everything since then.
I've searched the net looking for references. But nowhere, outside of Peru, can I find anyone with any information.
Maybe it is a hoax, but if so, it is the greatest one I've ever read about. And the magnitude? Think about it. You're some kind of a trickster on a grade scale. Okay, do you spend years of your life carving complicated pictures in rock and then scatter them in the hills? Why? Where's the profit? What's the reason? Who benefits? This farmer, selling them off a vendor's cart?
I simply don't get it. Somewhere, somehow, there is an explanation. I want to know: Who carved them? When? How? How did they acquire the knowledge? And, why did they carve them?