Posts Tagged ‘young earth’

Paper; Geological Time-Scale Off Between 99.95% to 99.99%? Analysis of the Main Principles of Stratigraphy on the Basis of Experimental Data

Church of Darwin, Science, The Flood of Noah, Uncategorized | Posted by Chris Parker
Mar 13 2011

Photo: Guy Berthault, the author is a graduate of The Ecole Polytechnique, France, and a member of the International Association of Sedimentologists and lives in Paris, France.

Submitted by A. Slater (Thank you A.-it is interesting :0) )

Article: Analysis of the Main Principles of Stratigraphy on the Basis of Experimental Data
A New Approach : Paleohydraulic Analysis by Guy Berthault

“When I started my experiments on strata formation I was surprised to find how little work had been done on the subject in the past. Of course, sediments had been examined and flume experiments performed in connection with building and other projects, but none with the object of explaining the mechanics of stratification.

I searched the data banks but found little to help with my research. I began to realise that the basic principles of superposition, continuity and initial horizontality laid down in the seventeenth century had been accepted, albeit with developments, virtually without question. There seemed to have been little attempt to examine the actual mechanics involved.

Yet a few simple experiments, first with laminae and later with strata revealed that the time needed for micro or macro strata formation was of quite a different order to that generally accepted. The implications were far-reaching both as concerns the geological time-scale and the fossil record. It was not until 1999 that there seemed to be an awakening to the idea that geological ages are measured by the time taken for sediments to deposit and not by biological revolutions or orogeny.

Prof. Gabriel Gohau of the French Geological Society confirmed this fact in his book A History of Geology (1999):

« Ce qui mesure le temps, ce sont les durĂ©es de sĂ©dimentation, sur lesquelles tout le monde est plus ou moins d’accord, et non celles des orogenĂšses et des « rĂ©volutions » biologiques. »

(Translation: Time is measured by the time taken for sediments to deposit, a fact upon which everybody is more or less agreed, and not by orogenesis or “biological “revolutions”)

Prof. Gohau mentioned in his work how Charles Lyell was influenced in the construction of the geological time scale by his belief in biological « revolutions» occurring over 240 millions of years. In the 20th century this figure was replaced by radiometric “absolute” dating of 525 million years. Such a figure is based upon the belief that igneous rocks can be dated radiometrically.

Criticisms of radiometric dating have been growing over recent years and following the chronology shown by our experiments I have looked at the basic premises upon which such dating is based. There indeed seem to be good physical reasons to challenge it.

In his book “Radioelements” (Masson 1966) Daniel Blanc wrote: “no variation of the radioactive constant has been observed whatever the experimental conditions, showing that it is independent of the conditions in which the radio-elements are placed.”

This is particularly the case for temperature and pressure which determine the change of state of magma to crystalline rock. Radioactivity would not, therefore, appear to be affected by the change of state; consequently it could not be used to date an igneous rock at the moment of its crystallisation.

Moreover, the elements present in the rock at the time of crystallisation came from the magma in which gravitation determined their position: they need not necessarily, therefore, be parent and daughter from the same radioactive element.

The problem of exaggerated time scales resulted from the work of Nicolas Stenon, originator of geological principles in the seventeenth century. Stenon did not take into account the effect of a turbulent water current on the formation of strata. His principles were based upon his observations but since no hydraulic laboratories existed at the time his principles were not tested experimentally.

Our experiments on the formation of strata are fundamental because they demonstrate, ‘inter alia’, that in a continuous turbulent current many superposed strata form simultaneously and progress together in the direction of the current; they do not form successively as believed originally. These experiments explain a mechanism of strata building, showing empirically the rapid formation of strata.

The important advances in sequence stratigraphy that have been taking place during the period of our research harmonise with our experiments. For instance, systems tracts composed of several strata are considered isochronous by sequential stratigraphy; a fact that we have demonstrated in the laboratory.

The paleovelocity of current below which particles of given size are deposited and the corresponding capacity of sedimentary transport of the current can be determined experimentally. These two criteria ascertain the time required for sequence deposition. Consequently, recent paleohydraulic analyses undertaken by our colleagues in Russia confirm the shorter time for sequences to deposit than the geological time attributed to it.

As reported in the latest publication (G.Berthault, A.Lalomov, M.Tugarova., Lithological and Mineral Resources. Vol.1, 2011) Reprint Source the time of sedimentation of the St. Petersburg sequence represents only 0.05% of the time refered to by the geologic time scale.

We believe the foregoing shows the need for a fundamental revision of geological chronology integrating the new data and based upon observation checked by experiment.”…Guy Berthault.

Author’s Website

The Vingboons Map: Catastrophe Captured by Cartography? California as an Island; Mythology or Topography?

Church of Darwin, Science, Sophistication of Ancestors, The Flood of Noah, Uncategorized, Unexplained Artifact | Posted by Chris Parker
Jan 24 2011


by Don Kennedy

California As An Island –

What californiaasanisland.org is All About

Some time in the past, before the ice age, most of western North America (and probably the whole world) was accurately mapped by a technologically advanced people. Who these people were and what technology they used is lost to us, but their maps remain as evidence that they did indeed accomplish the task. These ancient source maps were used by mapmakers in the 1600 to 1700s to fill in the vast unknown areas on the western side of North America. The recent mapmakers had no idea what was there, nor did anyone else, but they had source maps that showed the area as an island and they used them to fill in the gaps.

When were these source maps made?

They had to be made before the end of the ice age, because at the end of the ice age, the great ice dam holding back water in a huge lake finally gave way and the Grand Canyon was carved in just a few weeks. The Grand Canyon does not appear on any maps of California as an island that I have found, and is certainly not on the map used for this study, the Vingboons map of 1651.

In fact, on the Vingboons map, two rivers cross the location of the Grand Canyon. This creates a problem, because the ice age supposedly reached a maximum 18,000 years ago putting the date for modern man well before that. This pushes the date back into the realm of the Neanderthals, or even into the Paleolithic period, when we were supposed to be only capable of using stone tools.

An even greater problem is that the map also had to predate the uplift of the Nevada-Utah-Wyoming area that followed the end of the latest continental drift event in North America. (see Wikipedia, Farallon plate) According to continental drift theory, when the continents spread apart, the North America continental plate was pushed over an oceanic plate, which was forced down into the mantle of the earth.

The lighter minerals floated up against the bottom of North America, under the Nevada-Utah-Wyoming area. This area was lifted up from sea level (at least in Nevada, where the map shows where the sea encroached) to over 7,000 feet elevation in central Nevada, and similarly across all three states. The routes of rivers changed.

The Rio Grande, shown on the Vingboons map as the Rio de Norte, which used to flow into the Gulf of California, was forced to flow to the Gulf of Mexico. The map places a geologically recent date on continental uplift, the uplift having happened after the map was made, putting it within the historical presence of humans on earth.

Unfortunately, geology dates the North American continental drift events to the Jurassic period, 200,000,000 to 150,000,000 years ago. How will Science deal with the loss of 150,000,000 years? Since it requires abandoning a well entrenched worldview, it is most likely that the vast majority of academia will simply ignore this study and its implications.

The French La Californie ou Nouvelle Caroline of 1720 Also Showed California as an Island

In the following series of articles, I analyze the Johannes Vingboons “California as an Island” map area by area. We will see that the makers of the original map possessed a detailed knowledge of the geography of western North America. Correlation of features on the map to actual locations demonstrates that the map is very accurate.

After the analysis of the map I have included some information on the historical mapmaking and exploration of this area by the Spanish after the arrival of Columbus. The Spanish were extremely slow to explore this area, and the information they had was not allowed to be made public because they needed to protect information on their trade routes from their competitors. Vingboons was not using Spanish information to present California as an island.

These articles are my work and the result of my research. I have referenced all the sources I have used. None of these sources presents “California as an Island” as anything more than a myth.

I graduated from UCLA in 1976 from the School of Engineering. I followed the course of study in chemical engineering. I was introduced to the whole topic of California as an island in about 2008 by Cliff Paiva, who was also researching the locations of features on the map. We have taken different paths in our efforts to decipher the map, but I much appreciate Cliff’s getting me started.

If you have any questions regarding these articles, you can email me at don@californiaasanisland.org

Don Kennedy

Click Here for the Original Articles and to Learn More About This Fasinating Topic

Astrophysicists Puzzle Over Planet That’s Too Close To Its Sun–If the Universe is Old, It Should Have Burned Up!

Church of Darwin, Science, Unexplained Artifact | Posted by Chris Parker
Aug 31 2009


Photo: Altered from graphic by C. Carreau / ESA


Item: The moon moves away from the earth about 1.5 inches a year. In 6,000 years, the moon would have moved only 750 feet. In a billion years, those 1.5 inches a year would move the moon out 23,674.24 miles. A moon moving away at that distance would have a tremendous impact here on earth. Science says that the universe is 4.5 billion years old–meaning that the moon would have moved 106,534.09 miles away from earth (half its current distance) if the rate were constant.

Item: Small planets with weak gravity retain some atmosphere in contravention to accepted theories. In an old universe, those planets should be atmosphere free by this time. This is an indication that these planets are still very young.

Here a planet very close to its sun should have burned up completely in 4.5 billion years. The fact that it hasn’t could be explained by a young universe–but this alternative apparently does not occur to the scientists scratching their heads.

Item Forwarded by Big D (David .E.)
….s8int.com

Completing an orbit in less than an Earth day, planet Wasp-18b should have burned up, according to accepted theory

By John Johnson Jr.
LA Times
August 27, 2009

Scientists have discovered a planet that shouldn’t exist. The finding, they say, could alter our understanding of orbital dynamics, a field considered pretty well settled since the time of astronomer Johannes Kepler 400 years ago.

The planet is known as a “hot Jupiter,” a gas giant orbiting the star Wasp-18, about 330 light-years from Earth. The planet, Wasp-18b, is so close to the star that it completes a full orbit (its “year”) in less than an Earth day, according to the research, which was published in the journal Nature.

Of the more than 370 exoplanets — planets orbiting stars other than our sun — discovered so far, this is just the second with such a close orbit.

The problem is that a planet that close should be consumed by its parent star in less than a million years, say the authors at Keele University in Britain. The star Wasp-18 is believed to be about a billion years old, and because stars and the planets around them are thought to form at the same time, Wasp-18b should have been reduced to cinders ages ago.

“This planet should spiral inwards on such a short time scale that the likelihood of seeing it is very low,” said Coel Hellier, an astrophysicist at Keele.

“That’s a paradox,” said Douglas P. Hamilton, an astronomer at the University of Maryland who wrote a commentary accompanying the report. He said there were a variety of possible explanations, none of them very satisfactory.

“It’s like going to the scene of the crime and not finding the weapon,” he said. “Something’s happened, but a key piece of evidence is missing.”

One possibility is that Wasp-18, a sunlike, medium-sized star, is a thousand times less energetic than would be expected. That would mean it produces much less friction on the planet than normal.

This orbital drag, which scientists call the “tidal dissipation factor,” slows a planet each time it circles its star. Eventually, the planet no longer has enough energy to maintain its position, so it falls into the star and is engulfed.

But if the star’s energy is a thousand times less than expected, that would be a big surprise, Hamilton said. It would imply that science doesn’t understand the composition and characteristics of sunlike stars as well as it thought it did.

A second possibility is that the planet hasn’t been in its current position very long, Hellier said. Wasp-18b could have spiraled inward to its current position over millions of years. It may have been bumped out of its original orbit by another planet, for example.

“However, that does not solve the problem,” Hellier said, because the planet’s lifetime should still be very short and it would be very unlikely for his team to find it where it did.

The final possibility is that “we’re just missing something — there is some property of stars or tides that we just don’t understand,” Hamilton said.

In our solar system, the closest example of a similar mystery is Mars’ moon, Phobos. It orbits Mars at a distance of only about 5,600 miles. (Our moon orbits Earth at 40 times that distance.) Phobos’ orbit should cause it to crash into Mars in just 30 million years, a fraction of the 4.5-billion-year age of the solar system.

“Perhaps we really are missing some key bit of physics,” Hamilton wrote in his commentary.

An answer could be coming in just a few years. According to Hellier, if the orbit of Wasp-18b really is decaying at the expected rate, the effects should be measurable within the next decade.

Copyright © 2009, The Los Angeles Times

What Are Little Planets Made Of?

Science, Unexplained Artifact | Posted by Chris Parker
Jun 05 2009


What are little planets made of?
What are little planets made of?
Frigid methane spills
And weak gravity fields
That’s what little planets are made of

Jun 05, 2009
Article Excerpt:What are little planets made of? Source:Thunderbolts.info
:

“……………As we have suggested in the recent past, rather than reckoning celestial bodies like Titan or Mercury to be geriatric denizens of a wizened Solar System where whatever catastrophes that might occur have long since run their courses, it is more reasonable, given the anomalies detailed for many years in the Thunderbolts Picture of the Day, to think of them as youthful members of a dynamic ensemble.

Mercury is probably a relatively young planet and may have come to its present orbit and circumstances within the last 10,000 years. If that is the case, then the presence of an atmosphere of whatever density would not be surprising. The presence of electric currents flowing like giant tornadoes into Mercury hint at a time when those currents might have been far more powerful.”

Stephen Smith, Thunderbolts.info

Click Here to Read the Entire Article at Thunderbolts.info