Posts Tagged ‘neanderthal’

Those Sophisticated Cave Men:
This Just In: Neanderthals Cooked and Ate Vegetables

Church of Darwin, Sophistication of Ancestors, Uncategorized | Posted by Chris Parker
Jan 04 2011

Scientism is still having trouble letting go of the old “cave man” paradigm. Although several studies have determined that Neanderthal DNA is virtually identical to “ours” the idea that they may have eaten cooked vegetables blows minds.

Not long ago scientists announced to a breathless world that; Neanderthals Ate Seafood and Had Sophisticated Palates.

We get it; Neanderthals were people.

There are probably still out there willing to argue that they couldn’t speak or had no language etc..Many still believe that you remove the humanity of a man by representing him as hairy with a big nose….s8int.com

Neanderthals Cooked and Ate Vegetables, By Pallab Ghosh

Science correspondent, BBC News December 27, 2010

Neanderthals cooked and ate plants and vegetables, a new study of Neanderthal remains reveals.

Researchers in the US have found grains of cooked plant material in their teeth.

The study is the first to confirm that the Neanderthal diet was not confined to meat and was more sophisticated than previously thought.

The research has been published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The popular image of Neanderthals as great meat eaters is one that has up until now been backed by some circumstantial evidence. Chemical analysis of their bones suggested they ate little or no vegetables.

This perceived reliance on meat had been put forward by some as one of the reasons these humans become extinct as large animals such as mammoths declined.

But a new analysis of Neanderthal remains from across the world has found direct evidence that contradicts the chemical studies. Researchers found fossilised grains of vegetable material in their teeth and some of it was cooked.

Although pollen grains have been found before on Neanderthal sites and some in hearths, it is only now there is clear evidence that plant food was actually eaten by these people.

“We have found pollen grains in Neanderthal sites before but you never know whether they were eating the plant or sleeping on them or what” Professor Alison Brooks, George Washington University

Professor Alison Brooks, from George Washington University, told BBC News: “We have found pollen grains in Neanderthal sites before but you never know whether they were eating the plant or sleeping on them or what.

“But here we have a case where a little bit of the plant is in the mouth so we know that the Neanderthals were consuming the food.”

More like us

One question raised by the study is why the chemical studies on Neanderthal bones have been wide of the mark. According to Professor Brooks, the tests were measuring proteins levels, which the researchers assumed came from meat.

“We’ve tended to assume that if you have a very high value for protein in the diet that must come from meat. But… it’s possible that some of the protein in their diet was coming from plants,” she said.

This study is the latest to suggest that, far from being brutish savages, Neanderthals were more like us than we previously thought.

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Scientists Lied and Real Neanderthals Died! Neanderthal DNA 99.97% Identical to that of Evolutionary Scientist’s!

Church of Darwin, s8int.com, Science, Sophistication of Ancestors, The Flood of Noah, Unexplained Artifact | Posted by Chris Parker
May 10 2010


A DNA study discussed in the article below proves that Neanderthals interbred with “modern” humans; thus Neanderthals belong in our species, Homo sapiens.

Metaphorically speaking, science has murdered the “Neanderthal”. They robbed him of his humanity. They portrayed him as little more than an animal; unable to speak, to sing, to create tools, to love their children or to care for their dead.

They were literally considered sub-human or non human. They were drawn as “hairy” (a sure sign of primitiveness), stooped, knuckle draggers. Science told us that those primitive “things” were wiped out by the smarter “humans” or often “modern humans”-a term that should soon be extinct.

I do not exaggerate about the impact of science’s assault on Neaderthal. In the recent history of the world, considering Black people sub-human aided the continuation of the instutution of slavery and considering people of Jewish descent an inferior species led directly to the Holocaust.

With the dehumanization of Neanderthal, the religion of evolution was boosted. Science needed primitive half-men to support their theory of man’s descent from apes. But, it was always a lie and though it has now been proven to be a lie, science is still attempting desperately to hold on to it.

Humans are one of the most genetically similar species living. The DNA of each person alive today is 99.99% genetically identical to that of the next person. A West African population of only 55 chimpanzees had twice the genetic diversity as the entire human race one geneticist pointed out.

Christians who had knowledge of this area of science have wondered what was going to become of the “Neanderthal as primitive cave-man” if ever DNA from Neaderthal was sequenced. If the account in Genesis is true, then we would expect that the DNA analysis would prove creationists correct and evolutionists wrong; that men were men and that there had been no evolution of mankind.

The initial conclusions from a study of Neanderthal DNA appeared to uphold the evolutionary view. The researchers erroneously concluded that there was No genetic connection between Neaderthal and “people”. That was a very popular conclusion, however, now that’s been flipped on its head. here is a quote from the article describing the new conclusions:

Svante Paabo, the geneticist at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, who spearheaded the study, said he now sees his ancestors in a new light. His initial research on a different type of DNA that contains far less information had concluded – incorrectly, it turns out – that Neanderthals have no genetic connection to people alive today.

The real conclusion is that Neanderthal was 99.97% identical to “modern” humans. Since only 60% of the actual genome was recovered, one can attribute the tiny difference either to errors in the science or one might conclude that men were very slightly more genetically diverse prior to the flood. Recent science articles have stated that we share 4% of our genes with Neanderthal. Other scientists insist that Neanderthal couldn’t speak. Scientists argued up to this year whether pollen found in Neaderthal graves indicated that they buried their dead with flowers. (Not very apelike behavior).

Some might argue that science or scientists didn’t “lie”. At worst, perhaps, maybe they were wrong but this was not intentional. We would say; there couldn’t have been evidence that Neandethal was sub-human, since as we all now know–he wasn’t it. There couldn’t have been evidence that he looked as he was portrayed, so to portray him that was was not “truth” and was now known by all to be obviously untrue. Lie: “a false statement made with deliberate intent to deceive; an intentional untruth; a falsehood. 2.something intended or serving to convey a false impression..dictionary.com

The false impression they wanted to create? That Neanderthals were primitive biologically- a fact that if true would have disproved Genesis. That evolution is true.

A recent comment on Panda’s Thumb, an evolutionary website wondered how the initial “wrong” conclusions were going to be spun by the “creos”. No doubt it is his along with the Darwinist’s heads that are now spinning….s8int.com

Study suggests humans mated with Neanderthals

By KAREN KAPLAN
Los Angeles Times
Published: Thursday, May. 6, 2010

LOS ANGELES — The first modern humans to leave Africa 80,000 years ago encountered Neanderthal settlements in the Middle East and – on at least some occasions – chose to make love instead of war, according to an international team of scientists who have pieced together the genetic code of humanity’s closest relatives.

Traces of that ancient DNA live on in most human beings today, the researchers report in Friday’s edition of the journal Science.

The finding, which was made by analyzing DNA from Neanderthal bones and comparing it to that of five living humans, appears to resolve a longstanding mystery about the relationship between Neanderthals and Homo sapiens, who coexisted in Europe and western Asia for more than 10,000 years until Neanderthals disappeared about 30,000 years ago.

“We can now say with absolute certainty that we’ve got these Neanderthal genes,” said John Hawks, an evolutionary geneticist at the University of Wisconsin who was not involved in the study. “They’re not ‘them’ anymore – they’re ‘us.’”

Svante Paabo, the geneticist at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, who spearheaded the study, said he now sees his ancestors in a new light. His initial research on a different type of DNA that contains far less information had concluded – incorrectly, it turns out – that Neanderthals have no genetic connection to people alive today.

Now, Paabo said, “I would more see them as a form of humans that were a bit more different than people are from each other today.”

Most important, scientists said, knowing the precise structure of the Neanderthal genome will help answer the fundamental biological question: What makes us human?

Neanderthal DNA is 99.7 percent identical to that of people, according to the analysis, which involved dozens of researchers. Something in the remaining 0.3 percent must make us unique.

“It’s not about understanding Neanderthals,” said genome biologist Ed Green, who led the study as a research fellow in Paabo’s lab and is now at the University of California at Santa Cruz. “It’s understanding us.”

By lining up the Neanderthal genome with DNA from humans and chimpanzees, Green and colleagues identified small changes that are unique to humans. Some were in genes involved in energy metabolism, skeletal structure and brain development, including four that are thought to contribute to conditions such as autism, Down syndrome and schizophrenia.

The researchers constructed the Neanderthal genome from three bone fragments found in Croatia’s Vindija Cave. Using a sterile dentistry drill, the scientists removed 400 milligrams of bone powder – an amount equivalent to the size of an aspirin.

Extracting DNA from ancient bones was a dicey proposition.

For starters, 95 percent to 99 percent of the DNA the team found came from microbes that colonized the bones after the Neanderthals died more than 38,000 years ago. To address that problem, the scientists discarded DNA fragments with letter combinations that were especially common in microbes.

In addition, the Neanderthal DNA was badly degraded, which caused sequencing machines to misread some of the chemical letters in the sequence. The researchers developed a computer program to correct those mistakes.

The researchers took special precautions to keep their own DNA out of the Neanderthal samples. Workers wore full-body suits, including masks and gloves. The air pressure inside the lab was kept high so that nothing could blow in accidentally, and the room was irradiated after the researchers went home, Green said.

After four years of work, the team identified 4 billion fragments of Neanderthal DNA and organized them into a draft genome. The sequence is 60 percent complete.

“It is a very poor quality for a human genome, but it is outstanding for a 30,000-year-old extinct hominid,” said Eddy Rubin, who has sequenced samples of Neanderthal DNA at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory but was not involved in the Science study.

To look for evidence of gene flow between humans and Neanderthals, the researchers sequenced the DNA of five people who now live in southern Africa, western Africa, France, China and Papua New Guinea. Since they didn’t think Neanderthals genes had passed to humans, they expected to find the same degree of difference between the Neanderthal genome and all five people.

Instead, they discovered that the Neanderthal DNA was slightly more similar to the three people living outside of Africa. Even more surprising, the relationship was just as strong for the individuals from China and Papua New Guinea as for the person from France, who lives in the Neanderthals’ old stomping grounds.

The simplest explanation is that a small group of humans met the Neanderthals 50,000 to 80,000 years ago after they left Africa but before they had spread throughout Europe, Asia and beyond. The logical meeting place was the Middle East, which connects northeast Africa to the Eurasian continent.

“The contact must have happened early for the Neanderthals genes to have spread so widely and uniformly,” Henry Harpending, an anthropologist at the University of Utah, who was not involved in the study.

The amount of mixing was small – only 1 percent to 4 percent of the DNA in non-African humans originated in Neanderthals, according to the study. The researchers said none of that DNA is functional; in fact, the particular 1 percent to 4 percent is different in every individual.

Interbreeding may well have continued in Europe, but that would be harder to detect because both populations there were large and any small Neanderthal contribution would be too dilute to see, Paabo said.

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Neanderthal Teaches Science a Thing or Two

Church of Darwin, Science, Sophistication of Ancestors, Uncategorized | Posted by Chris Parker
May 13 2009

Did man evolve from primitive, less intelligent forms into presumably smarter, brainier and more sophisticated modern man? Or as we learn from the Bible, did he begin with language, intelligence, problem solving capability equal to that of “modern” man? The answer is, the more we learn about Neanderthal and Cro Magnon, the more science realizes that their initial, evolution derived assessment of him is wrong…..s8int.com

Evidence of Modern Smarts in Stone Age Superglue
By Brandon Keim Wired Science, May 12, 2009

Researchers who reverse-engineered an ancient superglue have found that Stone Age people were smarter than we thought.

Making the glue, originally used on 70,000-year-old composite tools, clearly required high-level cognitive powers. Anthropologists usually use symbolic art as the benchmark for modern cognition, but making the glue was an equally profound accomplishment.

“These artisans were exceedingly skilled; they understood the properties of their adhesive ingredients, and they were able to manipulate them knowingly,” wrote University of Witwatersrand archaeologists in a paper published Monday in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The archaeologists took design cues from stone tools found during a decade of excavation at South Africa’s Sibudu Cave site. The stones were still covered with traces of an iron-rich red pigment and acacia gum, a natural adhesive found in the bark of acacia trees.

Acacia gum was almost certainly used to attach the stones to wooden shafts, but researchers have debated the pigment’s role. Some suggested that it was decoration. The Witersrand team suspected a more functional use.

Indeed, when they used Stone Age toolmaking techniques to attach stones to wooden shafts with nothing but acacia gum, the tools soon fell apart. When they added the pigment, the tools stuck together. But making the glue required much more than simple mixing. It demanded careful and sustained attention.

Keeping the fire at the right temperature required certain types of wood, with a certain degree of moisture content. If glues were mixed too close to the fire, they contained air bubbles. If too dry, they weren’t cohesive; if too wet, they were weak. The Sibudu Cave’s Stone Age inhabitants, wrote the researchers, were “competent chemists, alchemists and pyrotechnologists.”

The Sibudu tools were about as old as the first possible evidence of symbolic art, also found in South Africa. But some archaeologists say that art, consisting of cross-hatched engravings on stone, may represent absent-minded doodles rather than a cognitive leap. The glues are a more convincing indication of modern intelligence.

“The glue maker needs to pay careful attention to the condition of ingredients before and during the procedure and must be able to switch attention between aspects of the methodology,” wrote the Witwatersrand team. “To hold many courses of action in the mind involves multitasking. This is one trait of modern human minds, notwithstanding that even today, some people find multilevel operations difficult.”

The Continuing Rehabiltation of Neanderthal
Did He Get a Publicist?

Church of Darwin, s8int.com, Science, Sophistication of Ancestors, Unexplained Artifact | Posted by Chris Parker
Sep 13 2008

When someone uses Neanderthal as an adjective, as in he is a real Neanderthal, (or is that a noun?) it is not considered to be a compliment. However, in the last few years, with the advent of DNA sequencing and even forensic science, Neanderthal and Cro Magnon (cavemen) have been the recipients of some excellent press.

We already knew that they were stronger than “we” are, but maybe scientists now theorize, they actually looked like us; one scientist found that their DNA is 99.9% equivalent to ours (which is how your DNA compares to any neighbors); maybe, they did intermarry another supposes; their tools were the equal of ours this current article recognizes, so how come we are supposed to have supplanted them? If evolutionary theories are true, shouldn’t stronger, as intelligent beings have supplanted “us”?

Neanderthals Conquered Mammoths, Why Not Us?
Jennifer Viegas, Discovery News

: The Human Animal Sept. 9, 2008 — They may have been stronger, but Neanderthals looked, ate and may have even thought much like modern humans do, suggest several new studies that could help explain new evidence that the early residents of prehistoric Europe and Asia engaged in head-to-head combat with woolly mammoths.

Together, the findings call into question how such a sophisticated group apparently disappeared off the face of the Earth around 30,000 years ago.

The new evidence displays the strengths and weaknesses of Neanderthals, suggesting they were skilled hunters but not as brainy and efficient as modern humans, who eventually took over Neanderthal territories.

Neanderthal Vs. Woolly Mammoth

Most notably among the new studies is what researchers say is the first ever direct evidence that a woolly mammoth was brought down by Neanderthal weapons.

Margherita Mussi and Paola Villa made the connection after studying a 60,000 to 40,000-year-old mammoth skeleton unearthed near Neanderthal stone tool artifacts at a site called Asolo in northeastern Italy. The discoveries are described in this month’s Journal of Archaeological Science.

Villa, a curator of paleontology at the University of Colorado Museum of Natural History, told Discovery News that other evidence suggests Neanderthals hunted the giant mammals, but not as directly. At the English Channel Islands, for example, 18 woolly mammoths and five woolly rhinoceroses dating to 150,000 years ago “were driven off a cliff and died by falling into a ravine about 30 meters (over 98 feet) deep. They were then butchered.”

Villa, however, pointed out that “there were no stone points or other possible weapons” found at the British site.

“At Asolo, instead there was a stone point that was very probably mounted on a wooden spear and used to kill the animal,” she added.

Several arrowheads were excavated at the Italian site, but the one of greatest interest is fractured at the tip, indicating that it “impacted bone or the thick skin of the mammoth.”

Other studies on stone points suggest that if such a weapon were rammed into a large beast, it would be likely to fracture the same way.

What’s For Dinner?

There is no question that Neanderthals craved meat and ate a lot of it.

A study in this month’s issue of the journal Antiquity by German anthropologists Michael Richard and Ralf Schmitz found that Neanderthals went for red meat, not of the woolly mammoth variety, but from red deer, roe deer, and reindeer.

The scientists came to that conclusion after grinding up bone samples taken from the remains of Neanderthals found in Germany and then analyzing the isotopes within. These forms of chemical elements — in this case, carbon and nitrogen — reveal if the individual being tested lived on meat, fish or plants, since each food group has its own carbon and nitrogen signature.

Richard and Schmitz conclude that the Neanderthals subsisted primarily on meat from deer, which they probably stalked in organized groups.

The researchers say their findings “reinforce the idea that Neanderthals were sophisticated hunters with an advanced ability to organize and communicate.”

Villa agrees.

“Neanderthals are no longer considered inferior hunters,” she said. “Neanderthals were capable of hunting a wide range of prey, from dangerous animals such as brown bears, mammoths and rhinos, to large, medium and small-size ungulates such as bison, aurochs, horse, red deer, reindeer, roe deer and wild goats.”

Enter Homo Sapiens

Fossils suggest that Neanderthals and modern humans coexisted in Western Europe for at least 10,000 years. While there is a smattering of evidence that the two species interbred, most anthropologists believe the commingling was infrequent or not enough to substantially affect the Homo sapiens gene pool.

New evidence supports that notion, while also revealing that the world’s first anatomically modern humans retained a few Neanderthal-like characteristics.

Several papers in the current Journal of Human Evolution describe the world’s first known people, which shared bone, hand and ankle features with Neanderthals and possibly also Homo erectus.

John Fleagle, professor of anatomical sciences at Stony Brook University, who worked on the early human research, told Discovery News that the shared characteristics “are just primitive features retained from a common ancestor.”

Neanderthal Brain Power

It’s known that Neanderthals had more robust skeletons than modern humans, with particularly strong arms and hands, but were the two groups evenly matched in brainpower?

A new study in this week’s Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences provides some intriguing clues.

Marcia Ponce de Leon of the University of Zurich’s Anthropological Institute and Museum and her colleagues virtually reconstructed brain size and growth of three Neanderthal infant skeletons found in Syria and Russia.

“Neanderthal brain size at birth was similar to that in recent Homo sapiens and most likely subject to similar obstetric constraints,” Ponce de Leon and her team concluded, although they added that “Neanderthal brain growth rates during early infancy were higher” than those experienced by modern humans.

It appears, therefore, that while Neanderthal brains grew at about the same rate as ours, they had a small size advantage.

Trade-Offs in Evolution

But bigger is not always better in terms of brain function. Modern humans evolved smaller, but more efficient, brains.

Ponce de Leon and her colleagues suggest, “It could be argued that growing smaller — but similarly efficient — brains required less energy investment and might ultimately have led to higher net reproduction rates.”

On the down side for people, however, brainpower efficiency doesn’t come without a cost.

“Our new research suggests that schizophrenia is a byproduct of the increased metabolic demands brought about during human brain evolution,” explained Philipp Khaitovich of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology and the Shanghai branch of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Cards Evenly Stacked

Weighing the pros and cons of each species, Neanderthals and modern humans may have been evenly matched when they shared European land, with more and more scientists puzzling over how such an advanced, human-like being became extinct.

University of Exeter archaeologist Metin Eren hopes the latest findings will not only change the image of Neanderthals, but also the direction that future research on these prehistoric hominids will take.

“It is time for archaeologists to start searching for other reasons why Neanderthals became extinct while our ancestors survived,” Eren said.

“When we think of Neanderthals, we need to stop thinking in terms of stupid or less advanced and more in terms of different,” he added.

See Also: Neanderthal Brains Grew Like “Ours”. Duh!

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Cro Magnon DNA Fully Modern-Scientists Claim Unchanged for 28,000 Years

Church of Darwin, Fin De Siecle, Science, Sophistication of Ancestors, Unexplained Artifact | Posted by Chris Parker
Jul 17 2008

Photo: Cro-Magnon rousts the Evolutionists

If Neanderthal is supposed to have lived in Europe beginning 300,000 years ago and Cro-Magnon for the last 30,000 years or so and it turns out that that their; “Modern” DNA is unchanged since that time; when did we do all that evolving?

We’ve written about this before, but a new article summarized in PLoS One has caused us to return to this subject again. A Cro-Magnon DNA sequence supposedly 28,000 years old was obtained from fossil bones discoverd in the Paglicci cave, in Italy.

The results show that the DNA is identical to the DNA sequences of certain modern Europeans. They claim therefore that the DNA sequence has remained static and unchanged over 28,000 years.

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