Posts Tagged ‘living pterosaurs’

Were/Are Pterosaurs Bi-Peds or Quadrupeds? The Ancient Maya Weigh In?

Church of Darwin, Crypto, Dinosaurs in Literature,, Science, Uncategorized, Unexplained Artifact | Posted by Chris Parker
Oct 21 2011

Photo: Mayan Peten Bowl
500 AD. to 800 AD. $1,895.00
“From ancient Mexico, Mayan, Peten region. Extremely fine and rare polychrome pottery bowl depicting the three failed attempts to create human beings – as published in the Maya Popol Vuh.” Gallery
Private collection

Well, here they are again; pterosaurs. If anyone out there consistently reads this blog it must seem as though pterosaurs are my favorite topic. That’s really not the case; they just seem to come up so frequently as a subject of ancient art is all. Honestly, my interests are broader than it would sometimes seem. I take them as they come.

Pterosaurs had three fingered “hands” attached to their wings at the pinky (a very long pinkie) and of course hind legs. Scientists have gone back and forth on the topic of pterosaur ground locomotion for years. Did they walk bi pedally or did they walk on all fours similar to a quadruped-or both?

The ancient Mayans weigh in with a partial answer; they could and did apparently walk on all fours. Prior specimens of ancient art that we’ve featured here indicate that they were bi pedal as well. The style and nature of this painting made it difficult for experts to identify the creature being portrayed on this ancient piece and they’ve concocted quite the story.

A comparison with recent mind’s eye depictions of pterosaurs on the ground may help the open minded see what the artist was apparently actually depicting; an out of time and place, pterosaur if you adhere to the current paradigm’s version of earth’s history.

“When setting out to restore fossil animals, an artist is faced with a unique problem that is not often faced by scientists. Where a scientist can reasonably reach the conclusion that something is not—or cannot be— known, a palaeontological artist is forced to reach conclusions on things which are unknown, and perhaps always will be.

An artist can’t paint a pterosaur in “don’t know” colours, or behaving in a “don’t know” way. Restoring pterosaurs, therefore, not only requires research into what is known about pterosaur’s anatomy, behaviour, and environment, but also a method for building up complete picture, even when there is little or no evidence to be had.”… John Conway Pterosaur

On Pterosaur Locomotion

“It didn’t take long for early pterosaur workers to figure out that pterosaurs were flying animals. Their hyperelongate forelimbs, fused torso elements, robust shoulder girdle and pectoral elements are clear indications that pterosaurs were adapted for self-propelled flight and, although some arguments have raged over the finer details of their flight styles, no-one has questioned their basic volant ability.

However, the same cannot be said for pterosaur terrestrial ability: for almost as long as pterosaurs have been known, little consensus has existed on both how and how well pterosaurs would be able to move on land. Early workers thought pterosaurs were probably relatively confident terrestrial locomotors, although no-one could agree whether they would stand in a bird-like, bipedal fashion, a lizard-like quadrupedal configuration or an erect, mammal-like quadrupedal stance.

Pterosaurologists of the mid-20th century took a dimmer view: these workers suggested that pterosaurs could barely stand, let alone walk, and would have to push themselves over the ground with dragging bellies and useless forelimbs held aloft.

Opinions changed in the 1980s when several pterosaur workers attempted biomechanical studies of pterosaur limbs in efforts to figure out their terrestrial competence: alas, this confused matters further as different interpretations of the same material led to drastically different conclusions.

In the space of a decade, pterosaurs were restored as dinosaur-like bipeds, penguin-like bipeds, sprawled-limbed quadrupeds and erect-limbed quadrupeds.”… Mark Witton Pterosaur Terrestrial Locomotion

So There You Have It?

“So there you have it. The answer is: Both.

Pterosaurs were both plantigrade and digitigrade. Pterosaurs were both bipedal and quadrupedal. Pedal digit 5 was useful for basal pterosaurs, but not for derived flatfoots. All of these traits are like those of living lizards, the ones capable of standing, walking and running bipedally.

At such times, these lizards turn from plantigrady to digitigrady without overextending the metatarsophalangeal joints, without having symmetrical pedes and without having all of the various morphological advantages that pterosaurs enjoyed, such as an anteriorly elongated ilium, an expanded sacral series for balance and prepubes to help elevate their femora. Pterosaurs likely took off bipedally, NOT with their forelimbs as described here.

They certainly had to land bipedally.”

Pterosaurs: Bipedal? Quadrupedal? or Both?
The Pterosaur Heresies

Why Paleontology is Not “Science”; When It Comes to Giant Pterosaur Flight, Science Believes Very Strongly Both Ways!

Church of Darwin, Crypto,, Science, Uncategorized, Unexplained Artifact | Posted by Chris Parker
Nov 11 2010

by Chris Copyright November 2010

Re: Photo:Ancient Pacific Northcoast First Nations Artists came down firmly on the side of giant pterosaur flight? “Haida Raven Rattle” shows man on the back of large flying creature. A dragon at the rear has tongue connected to rider which was a common feature of these pieces. Comparison with Quetalcoatlus, a giant pterosaur.

There are a lot of “disciplines” out there that call themselves “science” or scientific which in fact are neither. Paleontology is one of those disciplines.

Wikipedia tells us that; “science is an enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the natural world”. An older definition of science would call it a body of knowledge that could be logically and/or convincingly explained.

Quite a bit of what passes for science these days would not fit either of those “classical” definitions of science; and this specifically includes paleontology. Early God believing practitioners of the Aristotelian method used its logic and its deductive and inductive reasoning to study and make observations about God’s creation. Modern scientific disciplines have become unscientific because its materialistic practitioners create mythologies and just so stories in order to seek to separate God from His creation.

Modern science has become religion. Modern science is about consensus. Modern science is about materialistic explanations only. Modern science is concerned with politics and right thinking. Modern science goes after non-conformists every bit as much as the Catholic Church went after Galileo.

Michael Crichton, an evolutionist, sadly now passed on once wrote:

“In recent years, much has been said about the post-modernist claims about science to the effect that science is just another form of raw power, tricked out in special claims for truth-seeking and objectivity that really have no basis in fact. Science, we are told, is no better than any other undertaking. These ideas anger many scientists, and they anger me. But recent events have made me wonder if they are correct.”…Aliens Cause Global Warming

Crichton’s specific concern was the kind of “consensus science” that surrounded disciplines like climatology and SETI. Science was now in the business of creating a consensus instead of building and organizing facts around testable hypotheses. Not only that science is now in the business of attacking the credibility and motivations of even their brother scientists whenever they failed to bow down to the paradigm, he believed.

As a current example, science has taken to identifying climate warming non adopters by the pejorative term “climate change deniers” in an attempt to cast people who have doubts about the global warming consensus in the same light as those who deny the Holocaust.

Climatology is not science. This supposed scientific discipline studies supposedly studies the history of our planet covering they believe over 4 billion years. In the past 30 years or so they have been building a consensus built upon carefully selected data for “global warming”. In the process, they attack and silence non-believers.

If this really was a science that built and organized testable explanations or that created a body of knowledge that could be logically or convincingly explained, why was the principal fear of that science as late as 1975; worldwide, global cooling?

Here is a headline from the New York Times, 1975: “Scientists Ask Why World Climate Is Changing; Major Cooling May Be Ahead; Scientists Ponder Why World’s Climate Is Changing; a Major Cooling Widely Considered to Be Inevitable…by WALTER SULLIVAN, The New York Times
May 21, 1975”.

A discipline that comes to diametrically opposing conclusions within the span of 35 or 40 years about the weather of a planet supposedly 4.5 billion years old has no predictive or scientific value whatsoever. That’s why climatology is not a science. (see All The Really Smart People Believe in Man-Made Global Warming)

Can we say that Genetics is not science? Clearly there are aspects of genetics that fit the classical definitions of science. However, as I.L. Cohen, Researcher and Mathematician and member of the NY Academy of Sciences noted “At that moment, when the DNA/RNA system became understood, the debate between Evolutionists and Creationists should have come to a screeching halt…….”

He said that because design and intelligence are now obvious and inherent characteristics of the DNA/RNA system. DNA is a language that contains an unimaginable amount of data that is stored in the cells of everything living. DNA is not only a language like English or Russian, it conveys a Message to every living cell that components of the cell understand and execute. Life could not exist without the DNA/RNA system because the instructions for life are conveyed by the system.

Any science that ignores this obvious truth and instead mythologizes a materialistic “explanation” for DNA’s creation and existence cannot be called a science. After all, it is ill-logical and thus anti-scientific to find a message in literally every living cell and not to understand that someone or something intelligent sent that message. The contents of the message conveyed by this langauge in the smallest single bacterium cell is beyond the technology of man.

As an additional blemish on their scientific credentials; “scientists” named a portion of DNA that they did not have the capacity to understand “junk DNA” believing at the time it had no function. As time has passed and it’s become clear that those sections of DNA in fact have very important functions, the term junk science would seem to have been more appropriate.

Cosmology is not a science. The big bang is not a theory; (a hypotheses backed by testing data) it is a materialistic philosophical mythology. How can a scientific explanation fail to explain upwards of 97% of observation? This is in fact the exact opposite of the classical definitions of science. Dark matter and dark energy are two place fillers invented out of darkened imaginations to account for observations in the real world that the theory doesn’t contemplate and can’t explain.

Neither dark matter nor dark energy can be seen or detected. They are invisible, undetectable and mythological in exactly the same way fairies are. This is why cosmology is not science.

Sometimes even “hard science” like physics isn’t science. Not when it has to do the bidding of materialists. In the last several decades it’s become abundantly clear that we live in an anthropic universe. That is, it’s become clear that the universe was created to cradle life and even more disturbing for some; that this planet and solar system have many characteristics seemingly tailored for life.

In desperation, superstring theory; a mythology that there exist an infinite number of universes inhabiting the same space and that we just happen to be one among those infinite universes that supports life has been created out of vivid imagination, materialistic philosophy and chewing gum? Of course, the multi-verses of superstring theory can not be seen, detected. The theory is untestable. This lack of “testability” is precisely why materialists claim that “special creation” is not scientific.

A paleontologist is a “scientist” who studies the history of life on earth, focusing on organisms that lived in the distant past. Paleontologists can wax for hours about the “Cambrian Explosion” and the “Great Dying” mostly without even realizing that they are describing creation and the fall from Genesis.

Paleontology is the kind of science where someone with a PhD can publish an article in a scientific journal suggesting that “maybe” a mutation in a single protein-led to smaller jaw muscles in an ape—which then gave them more room in their skulls to develop a larger “human” brain. This scientific mythology was reported worldwide. One can only surmise that the authors of this “scientific article” and those who accepted it must have had disturbingly large jaw muscles?

Paleontological scientific findings are slavishly reported by the news media and fawned over by materialists because it is the scientific discipline that most directly seeks to support Darwinism and materialism. Evolutionary theory is most often seen through the lenses of this “science”. One with an open mind would be hard pressed to discover one thing that paleontologists are correct about. On the other hand, no one speaks with more apparent authority than the paleontologists. Every body that they study is already dead after all; whose going to contradict?

Remember Ida, the fossil that was supposed to be an early human ancestor that was going to change everything? The subject of the simultaneous release of a book and a documentary and much slavish media reporting in April 2009 did not in the end make most if any of the most prominent Top 10 Scientific Stories of the year lists. How is this possible for a science? (see Fossil Ida; Evolutionists Now Dare Not Speak Its Name)

Well, paleontologists practically invented the phrase; “scientists had previously thought”.

Apologists for non-science science often snootily declare that this is what is great about science; its always willing to admit its mistakes and then to move forward. This is what is admirable about science they say.

Perhaps this is true, but meanwhile; the patient is dead.

In April 2009, a study was published and then breathlessly reported worldwide to the effect that Giant Pterosaurs, a creature supposedly extinct for more that 65 million years, could not fly. “Giant Pterosaurs Couldn’t Fly, Study Suggests”

It’s a mystery how natural selection working through beneficial mutations could confer evolutionary advantage to a creature with giant, useless wings but that is paleontology for you; its not rocket science—its not even science. Shut up and believe.

The study was published by study leader Katsufumi Sato, an associate professor at the University of Tokyo’s Ocean Research Institute.

“Based on the weights and body sizes of modern birds, a new study finds that animals heavier than 90 pounds (41 kilograms) with wingspans greater than 16.7 feet (5.1 meters) wouldn’t be able to flap fast enough to stay aloft.”, the study concluded.

The conclusion casts serious doubt on the flying ability of large pterosaurs such as Quetzalcoatlus, thought to be one of the largest airborne animals of all time.

Dutifully, other scientists began surmising that these giant pterosaurs were swimmers instead. Materialistic science teachers passed this new information on to their students. Young evolution influenced kids began drawing versions of wingless pterosaurs and posting them on evolution websites looking for approval.

Posters on sites like Talk Origins went on and used this new “scientific information” to berate believers. “Why would God create a giant pterosaur that couldn’t fly”? Why would evolution do that they forgot to ask themselves….what would be the evolutionary advantage?

Anyway, another scientist in the paleontological world was working on his own study regarding pterosaur flight. Now, if both of these studies were scientific, and relied on building testable hypotheses or built knowledge bases etc….. One might say, how could they do that? The creatures they study or just bits and pieces of fossilized bones, I would say; “exactly correct” and that again is why paleontology is not science.

Paleontologist Michael Habib offered new findings about giant pterosaurs based on “new models of their wingspans, shape and body mass”. His study was reported on October 18, 2010 in National Geographic News approximately 18 months after the prior study had been reported on, also in National Geographic News.

Now would Habib’s study support Sato’s no fly theory? Would it perhaps suggest that well…..maybe they could fly a little bit given a strong wind, a one thousand foot cliff and Air Jordans?

The title of the new study or at least of the News articles tell the story: “Prehistoric Reptile Could Fly 10,000 Miles”.

“It’s now believed that some of the larger pterosaurs, such as this Tropeognathus mesembrinus, could fly as far as 10,000 miles at a time.

Whether you learned in school to call them pterodactyls or pteranodons, pterosaur fossils have been found all around the world and lived from 65 million to 200 million years ago.

They ranged in size from some with an average wingspan of 6 feet to the giant giraffe-sized Quetzalcoatlus of Texas that could reach up to a 30-foot wingspan.”

Quetzalcoatlus was one of the giant pterosaurs specifically mentioned in the prior article as not being able to get itself off the ground.

Evolution is incredibly flexible and malleable and so are its believers. You see how the article explains that they now believe something diametrically opposed to what they firmly believed only 18 months ago?

Remarkable. That’s why paleontology is more religion; faith and belief than it is science.

Paleontologists have certainly covered the bases here when it comes to giant pterosaur flight. There is one thing that we now know with “scientific certainty”; giant pterosaurs either could not get off the ground and couldn’t so much as even flap their wings—or they were the greatest terrestrial flyers of all time! One scientist claims that his study shows that giant pterosaurs could not get off the ground. The second study indicates that they were the greatest fliers of all time.

Meanwhile, the news media slavishly reports the new information without reference to the old information and certianly without criticism or their own analysis. Materialistic science teachers passed this new information on to their students. Young evolution influenced kids began drawing versions of space-going pterosaurs and posting them on evolution websites looking for approval.

Posters on sites like Talk Origins will now go on and try to use this new “scientific information” to berate believers.

Giant Pterosaurs Couldn’t Fly Study Suggests

Prehistoric Reptile Could Fly 10,000 Miles

The Monster of Salt Lake; Huge Flying Reptile Was Seen Carrying A Horse In It’s Jaws–Half Bird, Half Reptile; All Pterosaur?

Crypto, Dinosaurs in Literature,, Science, Uncategorized, Unexplained Artifact | Posted by Chris Parker
Jun 27 2010

Photo:A Black and white version of this drawing appeared with the article. Click to see higher resolution

An article carried widely was published in the Salt Lake City, County and reprinted in the; Denver News and the Logansport Pharos, Indiana, on Sept 22, 1903, the Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, September 3, 1903 (among others) gave an eyewitness account of a gigantic, “prehistoric monster” on Stansbury Island that could only have been a long-tailed, pterosaur.

The story mentions that there had been a number of “current” eyewitnesses of the “terrible creature” but that the account by Martin Gilbert and John Barry, two hunters who recently returned from an expedition was the most complete in cataloging the creature’s movements.

This account is fantastic in the various meanings of the word and no doubt most would simply believe it to be untrue and impossible. The art that appeared with the story (shown here) which was not often reproduced with the text in the various papers that picked up the story, clearly portrays a pterosaur. Science says that these creatures became extinct millions of years ago and that is proof enough for most that there is no truth to this account.

On the other hand, there have been hundreds if not thousands of sightings of similar (mostly smaller) creatures like this in the last 20 or 30 years. For example, this eyewitness accounts suggests a creature in the same size range as the 1903 sighting:

In December, 1997 my husband and I both sighted a huge creature flying over a densely populated area, while we were out walking one night in Perth, Western Australia on the coastline around 10:30 pm. . . .”

“ . . it had a ruddy reddish brown leathery skin; (we could see its underneath as it flew over us at about 300 ft up; the glow from all the ground lighting made that possible), it had a long tail and a wingspan that we estimated at between 30-50 feet across. Complete Story

Prior Sightings:

It should be mentioned that there had been prior sightings of this or other monsters at Stansbury Island (or Great Salt Lake) prior to this account; in the 1840’s a “Brother Bainbridge” reported seeing a “dolphin-like” body of large size in the Lake near Antelope Island and in 1877 J.H. McNeil and several other employees of the Barnes and Co. Slat Works Co. reported being chased by a huge creature with a crocodile-like body and the head like a horse’s which emitted a fearsome bellowing noise. Skeptics suggest that the 1877 sighting was a buffalo….Wikipedia

The local Native American’s had an oral tradition about a monster that inhabited the Great Salt Lake area called the Great Mosquito Monster or the Giant Mosquito Monster. This winged creature with a long beak (like a mosquito?) was a terror and was reportedly responsible for the disappearance and destruction of many braves. It’s not difficult to understand how a creature like a large pterosaur could inspire the name or the description; “The Great Mosquito Monster”.

In the sighting referenced by this article, in 1903, some information is provided that could shed some light on pterosaur behavior as well as some explanation as to why this creature is seen both in the air and in the water. The 1903 eyewitnesses claimed that the creature was at home in the sky and in the water. This could account for sightings on land and in the lake itself. The sightings are collectively called the North Shore Monster.

Aquatic Pterosaurs?
It is interesting to note that upon the initial discovery of pterosaur fossils, they were thought to be aquatic:
“The first pterosaur fossil was described by the Italian naturalist Cosimo Collini in 1784. Collini misinterpreted his specimen as a seagoing creature that used its long front limbs as paddles. A few scientists continued to support the aquatic interpretation even until 1830, when the German zoologist Johann Georg Wagler suggested that Pterodactylus used its wings as flippers..”…Wikipedia

Maybe they weren’t so far off after all. In 1922, a New York Times article reported that a fifty foot marine creature eventually took flight after sinking a boat in the Mediterranean after the crew pelted it with pomegranates. Reportedly the creature had been seen circling the Dog Island in the sea of Marmora for several days as well as hassling ships and boats in the area. Who makes up details like that?…

The Monster of Salt Lake
Huge Flying Reptile Was Seen Carrying A Horse In It’s Jaws
Half Bird, Half Reptile.

“A terrible, nameless, unclassified creature of the animal world is exciting the curiosity, wonder and fear of occasional visitors to Stansbury island, in the Southern portion of Great Salt lake.

This monster, for it can be called nothing else, has lately, it is said, been seen by several persons, but the best account of its characteristics and movements is given by Martin Gilbert and John Barry, two hunters who recently returned from an expedition over the island, in the course of which they studied the habits of this hitherto unheard of creature for three days.

The monster, which appears to be almost equally at home in the air, on the beach or submerged in the briny waters of Salt lake, is probably the sole survivor of a prehistoric species. It is doubtless the last representative of a family whose other members, dead ages since, have left the testimony of their existence in the primeval rocks of the mountains.

Arranging in concise form the description of this incredible relic of the animal world from the accounts given
by those who have observed it at a close range, it seems in plain, unscientific language a combination of fish, alligator and bat.”

One of the eyewitnesses put the size of the creature while the other, who closely studied the tracks it left in the sand of the beach thought it closer to 65 feet in length.

Photo:Comparison of monster drawing on decription of eyewitnesses with current artist conceptions of certain long tailed pterosaurs. Click for higher resolution

The head was described as being like that of an alligator and it was thought that its jaws could open as wide as ten feet and that they were filled with saw-edged teeth. The body was described as being encased in “horny scales” and its eyes like so many modern “pterosaur” sightings as fiercely glowing.

The 1903 article continues:

“As to this Gilbert and Barry are not positive, (scales) as the constant diving of the beast, if such it may be called, into the strong brine of the lake has incrusted it with a thick coating of salt, which, save near the wings, completely hides the body.

It is due to this unusual phenomenon that the hunters obtained their first sight of the monster. According to
their account, they first sighted it at a distance of between one and a half and two miles. The day was clear, the sun intensely hot. Gilbert’s own words of the discovery are:

“We were walking westward from the east shore of the island about 9 o’clock in the morning when suddenly to the northwest there appeared a thing. I don’t know what to call it.

It looked to me like a brilliant rainbow folded into a compact mass, moving rapidly through the air. “In three, or four minutes the monster’s position was such that it no longer reflected the sunlight directly toward us, and wo could then discern the outline of the form.

Its wings were batlike stretching out over a great expanse, I should say at least 100 feet from tip to tip.

The tail was proportionately short and resembled that of a huge fish. We were not close enough at this time to tell much about the head, only we saw that the jaws were very long. In shape the head was like that of a crocodile.

“We watched it disappear in the gathering gloom of the night, but were for a long time paralyzed with fear, not knowing when it might return. It was probably an hour later when it did come back.

We heard the swish of the mighty wings before it could be seen, but as it drew nearer by the light of the young moon in the west we saw that it carried in its great jaws a large horse, which, I suppose, it had swooped down upon while feeding. The horse was badly crushed and mangled.”

At that point the article continues that they listened to the crunching of bone that could be heard in the cave for the better part of an hour, after it quited down they waited for a while and then stole back to their camp on the other side of the island. It must be assumed that the balance of their observations over what wa described as three days took place at some distance on the other side of Stansbury Island.

The Civil War Pterosaur Shot No One’s Allowed to See; The Most Obfuscated Photo in History?

Crypto, Science, Unexplained Artifact | Posted by Chris Parker
Apr 21 2010

A doppelganger picture? Yes! Because there exists a second, virtually identical imitation of this sepia photo, a yellowish photo with very similar content, that most people also don’t know the origin of! But more on that later. Here are the two pictures. The first we shall call the real “Sepia (colored) shot” & the second the fake “Yellow shot“:

1) The First “Sepia Shot!” — Study carefully! Click on photo to see big size.

2) The 2nd “Yellow Shot” imitation.

What’s up with these photos?

•Both photos show 6-7 American soldiers with similar Civil War uniforms & similar guns.
•Both photos show a dead, non-decomposed carcass of a recently shot pterosaur!?
•Both hunters have similar positions with their left foot on the pterosaur’s head.
•Both photos’ soldiers hold similar positions in similar open spots in a forest.
•Both photos have blurred edges, but the 2nd one’s blur seems applied & more artificial.
•Both photos have a similar fold line going vertically through the picture.
•Both photos have similar scrape marks at virtually similar spots. Coincidence?
•In the 1st sepia shot details are clearer than in the 2nd blurry yellow shot.
•Sun-faded spots in the 1st photo look more genuine than lightened parts in the 2nd.
•It seems that the 2nd is an imitation of the 1st one, except for the pterosaur size!
•Both photos’ content is very CONTROVERSIAL, to say the least!

Photography during the civil war was very developed and already produced detailed clear pictures. Although details on the sepia photo’s edge are not as clear as the middle of the photo most likely due to chromatic abberation (6), there’s no reason for the second photo to be so equally blurred, other than by design. Also the Civil War uniforms & equipment in the sepia shot are more correct than in the yellow one, where the belts are incorrect. Also the “dino” looks kind of flat and non-descript.

We can safely say that the second photo is not as old as the first and was purely intended as a copy of the first, a “doppelganger” like Winston Churchill’s look-alikes during World War II, hired to protect him! How easy it is to deceive the nations.

Question; Why create a fake of a fake? EXCERPTED FROM ORIGINAL ARTICLE:HERE–Click to Read the Remainder

Excerpted by permission.

Tracking Living (Or Recently Dead) African Pterosaurs

Crypto, Dinosaurs in Literature,, Science, Unexplained Artifact | Posted by Chris Parker
Dec 17 2009

by Chris Parker, Copyright 2009

Isaiah 30:6 (New King James Version)
The burden against the beasts of the South. Through a land of trouble and anguish, From which came the lioness and lion, The viper and fiery flying serpent….

One might think that the continent of Africa would be the repository of animal fossils of all types but the number of pterosaur fossils discovered there have been few and far between. I say this with the knowledge that many locations in modern day Africa have been the scene of pterosaur-like sightings.

In addition, the ancient art of Western Africa and the coast of Eastern Africa has featured a number of pterosaur like creatures -as we shall see.

In 2005, a particularly fine pterosaur fossil was discovered by paleontologists in the Sahara.

PHOTO 1, Top Left. Senufo. Medicine container/statue. Note the featherless head, the strong legs. This reptilian appearing creature has captured what appears to be a monkey in its beak.
PHOTO 2, RIGHT. The same piece compared with a model of the fossil African pterosaur discovered in the Sahara in 2005 on the left and another type of long-billed pterosaur shown on the right for comparison.

Click either photo to see an enlargement

Pterosaur Fossils in Africa
“Giant flying reptile lands on Chicago’s West Side
Paleontologists discover pterosaur fossils in the Sahara
© University of Chicago

A new species of pterosaur with a 16-foot wingspan has been discovered in the southern Sahara by a team led by University of Chicago paleontologist Paul Sereno.

“This find puts African pterosaurs on the map,” said Sereno, who is also an explorer-in-residence at the National Geographic Society.

Previous finds of these winged reptiles in Africa had been limited to individual bones or teeth. The 110-million-year-old fossils include most of one wing and several slender teeth from its over-sized jaws.

PHOTO 3,4 & 5 Senufo. The following three photographs feature an African mask which contrives to show two different types of pterosaurs, one upon another. The mask is shown entire in this intial photograph and then each of the two creatures are compared to pterosaur types (dimorphodon top, Campylognathoides and similar below) in separate photos. Click either photo to see an Enlargement.

“To find a wing composed of a string of paper-thin bones in a river deposit next to the sturdy bones of dinosaurs is a remarkable feat of preservation,” Sereno said. The bones and teeth were found in Cretaceous-age rocks in Niger that were deposited by ancient rivers…”

It might be instructive at this point to examine just what types of pterosaur fossils have been found on the continent of Africa especially because in a few paragraphs we will attempt to match several pieces of ancient art with certain known pterosaur types as potential identifications.

“Africa shows a great potential for pterosaur material due to the extensive outcrops in several areas. However, pterosaur remains have been found only in nine African countries (Kellner et al. 2007) and, prior to 1997, just postcranial material had been reported (Reck 1931, Galton 1980, Mader and Kellner 1999, Wellnhofer and Buffetaut 1999).

Recently new deposits were found with associated bones, including a partial wing from Lebanon (Dalla Vecchia et al. 2001) and a sequence of five cervical vertebrae from Morocco (Pereda-Super-biola et al. 2003). The red beds of Albian Cenomanian age from Morocco and Late Jurassic Tendaguru beds, located approximately 75 km northwest of Lindi, Tanzania (Maier 1997), are the most potential deposits in providing isolated remains up to now (Kellner and Mader 1997, Wellnhofer and Buffetaut 1999, Mader and Kellner 1999).

Regarding Tendaguru beds, four species were first established by the pioneer studies of Reck (1931): “Rhamphorhynchus” tendagurensis (based on radius and ulna), “Pterodactylus” maximus (based on a comparatively large ulna), “Pterodactylus” brancai (based on a tibiotarsus, fibula and the first phalanx of the wing finger), and “Pterodactylus” arningi (based on the first phalanx of the wing finger). Later, Galton (1980) reviewed the tibiotarsus from “Pterodactylus” brancai and reclassified it as “Dsungaripterus brancai” (Dsungaripteridae).

However, all those specimens are too fragmentary or incomplete for any determination at a species level, being regarded as nomina dubia by Unwin and Heinrich (1999). These authors also described a new taxon (Tendaguripterus recki) based on a short section of a mandibular symphysis.”….
On two pterosaur humeri from the Tendaguru beds (Upper Jurassic, Tanzania) Fabiana R. Costa; Alexander W.A. Kellner

PHOTO 6 & 7 Dan Tribe. “This piece is a Zoomorphic representation of a story or fable involving a crocodile, bird and a snake.” Note the cape-like wings and strong legs. Here we show the “bird figure” in comparison with certain pterosaurs (Photo 7). This “bird” has teeth–and birds do not have them. Click either photo to see an Enlargement.

“Ancient” Pterosaur Sightings

“Though dragons have completely dropped out of all modern works on natural history, they were still retained and regarded as quite orthodox until a little before the time of Cuvier;…For instance, Pigafetta, in a report of the kingdom of Congo (The Harleian Collections of Travels, vol. ii, 1745, p. 457.) ‘gathered out of the discourses of Mr. E. Lopes, a Portuguese,’ speaking of the province of Bemba, which he defines as ‘on the sea coast from the river Ambrize, until the river Coanza towards the south,’ says of serpents,

There are also certain other creatures which, being as big as rams, have wings like dragons, with long tails, and long chaps, and divers rows of teeth, and feed upon raw flesh. Their colour is blue and green, their skin painted like scales, and they have two feet but no more.

‘The Pagan Negroes used to worship them as gods, and to this day you may see divers of them that are kept for a marvel. And because they are very rare, the chief lords there curiously preserve them, and suffer the people to worship them, which tendeth greatly to their profits by reason of the gifts and oblations which the people offer unto them.’

And John Barbot, Agent-General of the Royal Company of Africa, in his description of the coasts of South Guinea, (Churchill, Collections of Voyages, 1746, p. 213.) says: ‘Some blacks assuring me that…there are winged serpents or dragons having a forked tail and a prodigious wide mouth, full of sharp teeth, extremely mischievous to mankind, and more particularly to small children.’” Gould, Charles, Mythical Monsters, 1886

PHOTO 8 Senufo, Senjen bird figures. Pteros on the wing? Photo 9. Senjen. More pteros on the wing. Note the reptilian character (central bony and raised skull ridge) and the teeth of these flying creatures in the Enlarged photo. Click either photo to see an Enlargement.

It should be noted that the two earlier books quoted, from 1745 and 1746, accurately describe pterosaurs many years before their “discovery” by science which first described them in 1784 and first suggested that they might fly in 1801.

“Modern” Pterosaur Sightings

Eyewitness continue up to present day all over Africa. One of the most well known of them is of creature known as the Kongamato.

“The Kongamato (“breaker of boats”) is a reported pterosaur-like creature from the border area of Zambia, Angola and Congo. Suggested identities include a modern-day Rhamphorhynchus, a misidentified bird (such as the very large and peculiar Saddle-billed Stork), or a giant bat.

Frank Melland, in his 1923 book In Witchbound Africa, describes it as living along certain rivers, and very dangerous, often attacking small boats. It was red, with a wingspan of 4 to 7 feet. Members of the local Kaonde tribe identified it as a pterodactyl after being shown a picture of one from Melland’s book collection.

In 1956 an engineer, J.P.F. Brown, allegedly saw the creature at Fort Rosebery near Lake Bangweulu in Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia). It was about 6:00 p.m. when he saw two creatures flying slowly and silently directly overhead. He observed that they looked prehistoric.

He estimated a wingspan of about 3 to 3 1/2 feet (1 meter) and a beak-to-tail length of about 4 1/2 feet (1.5 meters). It reportedly had a long thin tail, and a narrow head which he likened to an elongated snout of a dog.

PHOTO 10 The auction house calls this creature a monster-and so it is. Here we’ve shown it in comparison to one of the tapejara crested pterosaurs. Note the reptilain character, the wing shape, the very unusual mouth treatment, the teeth? It is obviously some type of crested pterosaur. If you go back and look at Photo 8, it is appears that they represent the same type of pterosaur. Click either photo to see an Enlargement.

The following year, at a hospital at Fort Rosebery, a patient came in with a severe wound in his chest, claiming that a large bird had attacked him in the Bangweulu swamps. When asked to draw the bird, he allegedly drew a creature resembling a pterosaur. This drawing does not appear to have survived to the present.

It is curious to note that the area concerned is advertised as a prime birdwatching site, but this large, flying animal seems not to have been reported by any visiting birdwatchers.

There are reports of similar creatures (no details given) from Angola, Zimbabwe, Democratic Republic of Congo, Namibia, Tanzania and Kenya”…..wikipedia

Ancient African Art and the Senufo and Dan Peoples of West Africa

BONUS PHOTO Cheeky! Compare mouths of these two types of crested pteros. Flip pteros mouth on the right from vertical to horizontal in your mind’s eye…. Click either photo to see an Enlargement.

Ancient African artists have occasionally portrayed creatures very much like pterosaurs. As we look at these pieces of African art, keep in mind that there are many types of pterosaurs and that modern artists might have a less developed idea of what these creatures looked like than the ancient artists who might have actually seen them fly.

Birds do not have teeth. Many pterosaurs do have teeth and of course do not have feathers. The toes on the feet of many pterosaurs are “parallel” and thus their feet and footprints are more human like in shape than are those of the typical bird.

Pterosaurs are thought to have been reptilian rather than “bird like” and of course their wings are more “bat like” than like those of birds. Keep those items in mind as you examine these pieces.

PHOTO 11 Senufo mask. PHOTO 12 Compared with pterodactylus kochi. Click Here to Read That Article
Senufo Ivory Coast (Cote d’Ivoire) The Senufo are made up of a number of diverse subgroups who migrated into their current location from the north during the 15th and 16th centuries.

Unlike their neighbors to the north they have remained relatively sheltered from intrusive cultures including the Songhai and Hausa. Although they have certainly borrowed knowledge from their neighbors, they have not had to fear constant attacks and social upheaval.

All Senufo art is made by specialized artisans, which may diminish regional stylistic differences. Figures representing the ancestors are common, as are brass miniatures and small statues, which are used in divination. There are several types of masks used by the Poro society…..Art &Life in Africa

Dan Peoples Location: Liberia, Côte d’Ivoire. Dan sculptors mainly produce masks which deal with virtually every element in Dan society, including education, competition, war, peace, social regulation, and of course, entertainment. They also produce stylized wooden spoons and intricate game boards used for mancala, a common game of “count and capture”.

Ancient Nigerian Art

PHOTO 13: Antique art from Nigeria, from the book; “L’Oiseau Dans Ll’arte de Afrique L’Oues”, (Birds in the art of West Africa). PHOTO 14 The Nigerian piece compared with the fossil skulls of pterosaurs and with ancient drawing from Kalimantan.
“Nigeria’s art dates back a long time, over 2000 years by some archeological beliefs. The Nok Terracotta and the Igbo Ukwu are examples of some excavations that have been discovered by archeologists to indicate a highly developed artistic and technologically based civilization.

Some of the really old art found shows very much detail and very distinctive features suggesting technological skills way back when. The Nok art for instance, has many images made from iron-smelting. The Igbo artifacts show skills in bronze and copper utensils as well as sacred objects.

The Ife bronze heads are said to represent some of the past Ooni’s (rulers) of Ife.

The Benin have a lot of ancient artwork that has become famous over different parts of the world, and they can be seen in museums around the world. Most Benin art is made from bronze, though there is art made of other materials.”

See Also: Don’t Tell Him He’s Not a Chicken, We need the Eggs

Pteranodon on a Stick: Egyptian “Was” Scepter Creature No Mystery Without Darwinian History

Pteranodon on a Stick: Egyptian “Was” Scepter Creature No Mystery Without Darwinian History

Uncategorized | Posted by Chris Parker
Sep 28 2009

by Chris Parker, copyright 2009

The Was scepter was a ubiquitous Egyptian symbol signifying power and authority and hundreds of examples of it have been found in Ancient Egyptian art; usually in connection with Egyptian “gods” and Pharaohs as well as with other authority figures.

In the past month or so, I have received several emails to the effect that the mystery creature which sits atop of the Was scepter (in most cases) is clearly a pterosaur. I believe I’ve received separate correspondences from Garth Guessman of Genesis Park and Cliff Paiva of BSM Associates.

Mr. Paiva’s article on this topic can be found here.

Photo, Right: Faience votice was-scepter, excavated at Faras in Nubia, Late period, MMA 41.2.9. Click photo for larger version.
In my own research, I‘ve seen writer after writer and one Egyptian Authority after another speculate freely and inconclusively about the mystery creature that sits atop this well-known and researched Egyptian symbol. Could it be a rabbit they wonder? Could it be a type of bird? Is it an amalgam of several animals?

Surely, it is like other Egyptian symbols and based upon a real creature? If so, what was that creature, they wonder? Novel theories have been put forward to explain the origin of the mystery creature and yet, the identity of the creature is really quite evident—if one knows where to look.

It is quite clearly a representation of a pterosaur and specifically, based on the current scientific nomenclature about these creatures; it appears to be representation of a pteranodon. The one thing that it appears to be– can’t be considered by serious “academics” because Darwanism has twisted the history of the planet.

Photo:Left; Comparison of Nubian Was Scepter with modern depictions of pteranodon. The Egyptian version looks friendly compared with modern versions and his prong is “ornamented” perhaps with skin or keratin. Click for Higher Reso photo.
Had the Egyptians seen these creatures alive, and the evidence indicates that they did, they would have been quite impressed as some of them reached a height of six feet and had wingspans up to 33 feet or so.

It is true however, that to date fossils of pteranodon have not been found in Egypt or on the continent of Africa, although pterosaurs have been found—but the evidence speaks for itself.
Pteranodons are known for the backwards projecting spike or prong that forms a portion of their skulls. There are of course, several types of Pteranodons and the Egyptian examples may or may not be from a known group.

Photo:Right;Kom Ombo and Ombi – is an agricultural town in Egypt famous for the Temple of Kom Ombo. It was originally an Egyptian city called Nubt, meaning City of Gold (not to be confused with the city north of Naqada that was also called Nubt/Ombos). It became a Greek settlement during the Greco-Roman Period. The town’s location on the Nile 50 km north of Aswan (Syene) gave it some control over trade routes from Nubia to the Nile Valley, but its main rise to prominence came with the erection of the temple in the 2nd century BC…Wikipedia

Artists that have never seen pteranodon have speculated in their drawings as to how the backwards projecting prong presented itself on the live creature. There tends to be an incredible amount of group think in their portrayals, even as to the angle and perspectives shown which rarely change.

In most cases, the “prong” is shown without any “ornamentation”; however, the Egyptian artists have generally portrayed the prong with ornamentation. It is certainly fair to say that the Egyptian version is plausible given the pteranodon skull fossils that have been found.

Comparison of Kom Ombo “mystery creature” with modern pteranodon interpretations. Drawing on the left selected because artist imagined a pteranodon similar to the Egyptian version. Click for high reso photo

In this collection, we’ll look at some of the speculation concerning the Was scepter as well as compare a number of them with current artistic renderings of the Pteranodon. Pteranodon was thought by science to have been extinct for 75 million years. The ancient Egyptian culture is not nearly that old of course suggesting that science is wrong…

“Was” Speculation:

Was Scepter

Photo:Right; Was sceptre in the Egyptian antiquities section in the British Museum. Click for Higher Resolution photo/

(was) Appearance: The was scepter is a straight staff with a forked base and topped with an angled transverse section. The top of the staff was often shaped as the head of some fantastic creature, perhaps the bennu bird.

Originally, the was scepter may have been a fetish associated with the spirit of a sacred animal, or perhaps it was simply a herdsman’s staff”….Ancient Egypt and Mythology

“Was (“power”) scepters represent the typhonic or Set-animal (the mascot of the Egyptian god Set). Was scepters were depicted as being carried by gods, pharaohs, and priests, as a symbol of power, and in later use, as a symbol of control over the force of chaos that Set represented.

Was scepters often occur in paintings, drawings, and carvings of gods, and remnants of real Was scepters have been found constructed of faience or wood, where the head and forked tail of the Set-animal are visible.

Photo: Left; Comaparison of British Museum Was scepter creature with modern versions of pteranodon from fossils. Click for Higher Resolution photo
The Was (w s) is also the Egyptian hieroglyphic character that stands for a word meaning power.
In their 2004 book The Quick and the Dead, Andrew H. Gordon and Calvin W. Schwabe speculated that the Ankh, Djed and Was symbols were derived from various parts of a bull that were significant in ancient cattle culture, thus:
• the Ankh – symbol of life – thoracic vertebrae of a bull (seen in cross section)
• the Djed – symbol of stability – base or sacrum of a bull’s spine
• the Was sceptre’ – symbol of power and dominion – a staff made from a dried bull’s penis that was the symbol for the goddess Wosret or Wasret.

Photo:Right: “Detail of the “Mysterious” Was Sceptre. A symbol of Ancient Egyptian Divine Royalty, there is hardly a depiction of a god or goddess without it. We know very little about this instrument. No one even knows what the head is depicting, a rabbit, a fox or some other canine, even an ass or the ancient bennu (Phoenix) bird. it’s one of the most important symbols in all Egyptology right along with the ankh wedjet and djed. This detail was taken from Hathor temple, Dendera”……. Hazelra

The Was has a forked top and a tripod base. One suggestion is that the staff was pushed into the ground and a line of sight set through the fork, hence the ruler of all he surveyed.”..Wikipedia

Re: Origins of the Mysterious “Was”-Scepter

“Well, of course it was also a lingual phonetic component, and it has the phonetic value ws. But nearly every other hieroglyphic sign has a “meaning” in the sense that it is derived from a picture of a real world object : man, woman, parts of the body, mammals, birds, buildings, ships, ..

Photo; Left. Comparison of Dendera “creature” with more modern depictions of pteranodon. In one case we’ve added the Egyptian “prong detail” to a current depiction to take note of the results. Click photo for higher resolution.

Even the abstract symbols for life, stability and protection. The Ankh sign (S 34) for life resembles the
body of a person with outstretched hands, The Djed sign (R 11) for stability is a picture of a row of pillars.

The protection sign (V 17) resembles a seal that protects a content.

The “Was” sign depicts a scepter, and it was the symbol for dominion and power. If it was a symbol for power because the kings used it, why did the kings used exactly this scepter ? The question is : why has the “Was” scepter exactly this form and not another ?

What is the original function of it ? What is the origin of this sign ? There must be an origin somewhere in the physical world, because it is a very old sign, a sign that is frequently used in
and before the old kingdom.

Photo: Right; Another view of the Was Scepter compared with modern depictions of the pteranodon from the same point of view. Click for Higher Resolution photo
The development of the writing systems tells us (see e.g. Geoffrey Sampson’s Book Writing Systems, 1985), that every ancient writing system – the egyptian hieroglyphs, the sumerian cuneiform and the chinesesymbols – is derived from pictographic symbols.

For example, the Chinese symbol for “landscape” (shan shu) is a combination of the symbols for mountain and water, the sign for “man” is a combination of the symbols of power (a strong arm) and a
rice field. (working in the rice field was the work of man in china)”…Jochen Fromm

Photo:Left; Was-Scepter, Wadj-Scepter, Faience Late Period – Macedonian Period, circa 664-305 B.C.E) Provenance not known Broolyn Museum 37 1650E, 37 886E, Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund Photo © Joan Lansberry, May 2008. Click for Higher Resolution photo

Pteranodon (pronounced /t??ræn?d?n/; from Greek ????- “wing” and ??-???? “toothless”), from the Late Cretaceous of North America (Kansas, Alabama, Nebraska, Wyoming, and South Dakota), was one of the largest pterosaur genera, with a wingspan of up to 9 metres (30 ft).

Pteranodon is known from more fossil specimens than any other pterosaur, with about 1,200 specimens known to science, many of them well preserved with complete skulls and articulated skeletons, and was an important part of the animal community present in the Western Interior Seaway

Pteranodon was a reptile, but not a dinosaur. By definition, all dinosaurs were diapsid reptiles with an upright stance, and consist of the group containing saurischians and ornithischians. While the advanced pterodactyloid pterosaurs (like Pteranodon) had a semi-upright stance, this evolved independently of the upright stance in dinosaurs, and pterosaurs lacked the distinctive adaptations in the hip associated with the dinosaurian posture.

However, dinosaurs and pterosaurs may have been closely related, and most paleontologists place them together in the group Ornithodira, or “bird necks”.

Prong or crest

Photo:Right; Cairo Museum. Gilded wood statue of Ptah, with bronze was scepter, inlaid with gold. The base titles him, Ptah, Lord of Ma’at, and also names Tutankhamun. Note the was symbol (pteranodon). Click for Higher resolution

The most distinctive characteristic of Pteranodon is its primary cranial crest. These crests were consisted of skull bones (frontals) projecting upward and backward from the skull. The size and shape of these crests varied due to a number of factors, including age, sex, and species.

Male Pteranodon sternbergi, the older species, had a more vertical crest with a broad forward projection, while their descendants, Pteranodon longiceps, evolved a narrower, more backwards-projecting crest. Females of both species were smaller, and bore small, rounded crests..

…though the function of the crest has been a subject of debate. However, most explanations have focused on the blade-like, backward pointed crest of male P. longiceps, and ignored the wide range of variation across age and gender. The fact that the crests vary so much rules out most practical functions other than for use in mating displays.

In 1943, von Kripp suggested that the crest may have served as a rudder, an idea embraced by several later researchers. One researcher, R.S. Stein, even suggested that the crest may have supported a membrane of skin connecting the backward-pointing crest to the neck and back, increasing its surface area and effectiveness as a rudder.

The rudder hypothesis again does not take into account females or P. sternbergi, which had an upward-pointing, not backward-pointing crest. Bennett also found that even in its capacity as a rudder, the crest would not provide nearly as much directional force as simply maneuvering the wings.

The suggestion that the crest was an air break, and that the animals would turn their heads to the side in order to slow down, suffers from a similar problem. Additionally, the rudder and air break hypotheses do not explain why such large variation exists in crest size even among adults.

Many times here we have presented ancient artifacts or ancient objet’s d’art that we were convinced proved that ancient man had encountered dinosaurs or other creatures that science claims have been extinct for millions of years. What’s unique here is that we have multiple examples of the alleged “extinct” creature. The unique shape of the pteranodon’s head has been idealized in many instances with respect to the Was scepter but there are enough examples with clear details which prove the case.

Is this all too much for your Darwinian trained mind? That’s understandable. After all, who are you going to believe; science or your own lying eyes? :0)

Why not start over with creatures that have only supposedly been extinct for 10,000 to 2,000,000 years and if you can deal with them, then maybe try the pteranodon again.

That Dog Won’t Hunt! -Dog in Turtle Shell Appears to be a Glyptodont

Late Survival of Megatherium in South America-Olmec Culture Representation

Denial Is Not Just A River In Egypt:Suppressed Evidence of Human, Dinosaur and Other “Extinct” Fauna Interaction
in First Century Roman, Nilotic Art

See Also:Tracking Living (Or Recently Dead) African Pterosaurs
Draft 1

Maori Man-Eating Bird Legends Confirmed as True-But has Science Indicted the Wrong Suspect?

Crypto, Dinosaurs in Literature,, Uncategorized, Unexplained Artifact | Posted by Chris Parker
Sep 17 2009

Photo:Prow of Maori War Canoe, 1836. Auckland Museum. Click to enlarge photos in this post.

The Haast’s eagle had a wingspan of up to three metres. but the Maori also carved many apparent images of a winged creature which has only been described within the last decade. Many examples of this mystery creature appear on antique war canoe prows. This carnivore possibly (Tupuxuara, Tapejara or Pterorhynchus) had a wingspan of up to 19.5 feet and depending on the genus.

The Maori “myths” incude a description of a red crest on their man-eating flying monster. The crest on the tapejara alone could have been as large as three feet high. These creatures could have weighed as much as eighty pounds, twice as much as the creature science now suspects; the Haast eagle. Following is the official version. More on the unofficial version later…

Maori Man-Eating Bird Legends Confirmed as True

A Maori legend about a giant, man-eating bird has been confirmed by scientists. Te Hokioi was a huge black-and-white predator with a red crest and yellow-green tinged wingtips, in an account given to Sir George Gray, an early governor of New Zealand. It was said to be named after its cry and to have “raced the hawk to the heavens”. Scientists now think the stories handed down by word of mouth and depicted in rock drawings refer to Haast’s eagle, a raptor that became extinct just 500 years ago, shows their study in The Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology.

Haast’s eagle (Harpagornis moorei) was discovered in swamp deposits by Sir Julius von Haast in the 1870s. But it was at first thought to be a scavenger because its bill was similar to a vulture’s with hoods over its nostrils to stop flesh blocking its air passages as it rooted around inside carcasses.

But a re-examination of skeletons using modern technology, including CAT scans, by researchers at Canterbury Museum in Christchurch and the University of New South Wales in Australia showed it had a strong enough pelvis to support a killing blow as it dived at speeds of up to 80kph.

With a wingspan of up to three meters and weighing 18kg, the female was twice as big as the largest living eagle, the Steller’s sea eagle. And the bird’s talons were as big as a tiger’s claws. “It was certainly capable of swooping down and taking a child,” said Paul Scofield, the curator of vertebrate zoology at the Canterbury Museum.

“They had the ability to not only strike with their talons but to close the talons and put them through quite solid objects such as a pelvis. It was designed as a killing machine.”

Its main prey would have been moa, flightless birds which grew to as much as 250kg and 2.5 metres tall. “In some fossil sites, moa bones have been found with signs of eagle predation,” Dr Scofield said.

New Zealand has no native land mammals because it became isolated from other continents in the Cretaceous, more than 65 million years ago. As a result, birds filled niches usually populated by large mammals such as deer and cattle. “Haast’s eagle wasn’t just the equivalent of a giant predatory bird,” said Dr Scofield. “It was the equivalent of a lion.”

The eagle is thought to have died out after the arrival, 1,000 years ago, of humans, who exterminated the giant moa. The latest study shows it was a recent immigrant to the islands, related to the little eagle (Aquila morphnoides) an Australian bird weighing less than 1kg.

Remains of Haast’s eagles are rare because there never were many. They lived only on New Zealand’s South Island, with probably not more than 1,000 breeding pairs at any one time.

Photo:Primitive art. Prow from Maori War Canoe. Auckland Museum compared with recently discovered, high crested pterosaur. A curious creature appears on ancient Maori ship prows and ceremonial boxes. These pieces of ancient art go back to the 1800′s and earlier. Mostly preserved as museum pieces, these depictions are similar in form to pterosaur types that have only very recently been discovered or described; preceeding them by several hundred years.

The Maori art depicts a high crested creature with characteristics similar to birds–and pterosaurs. The high crests, “wattles”, arms and feet along with the large eyes and sharp beaks suggest that the identification as pterosaurs is a better match.

Photo; Right. Another ancient Oceanic boat prow.

Pterosaurs with high crests, similar to the ones depicted in Maori and Oceanic art include the Tupuxuara, Tapejara and the Pterorhynchus. It should be noted that even among the various types of these pterosaurs that the crest and crest shape vary.

It is not neccessary that the Maori pterosaurs be identified specifcally as any of the three named here. The point is, that the Maori are depicts creatures which are very similar to certain high crested pterosaurs and if they existed in this century, could be the source of Maori man-eating bird myths.

“Pterorhynchus was a genus of rhamphorhynchid “rhamphorhynchoid” pterosaur from the Late Jurassic-age Daohugou Formation of Inner Mongolia, China.

The genus was named in 2002 by Stephen Czerkas and Ji Qiang. The type species is Pterorhynchus wellnhoferi. The genus name is derived from Greek pteron, “wing” and rhynchos, “snout”, in reference to the tall crest on the head. The specific name honours the German pterosaur researcher Peter Wellnhofer.

The genus is based on holotype CAGS02-IG-gausa-2/M 608 (earlier DM 608). It was found in Chifeng in the Daohugou Beds. According to Ji Pterorhynchus belongs to the Yanliao Biota from the Haifanggou Formation of the Callovian; Lü Junchang in 2007 ascribed it to the somewhat later Tiaojishan Formation of the same stage.”…wikipedia

Photo:Comparison of primitive Maori art fishing boat prow with several crested pterosaurs. Click to enlarge.

“Tapejara (from a Tupi word meaning “the old being”) is a genus of Brazilian pterosaur from the Cretaceous Period. The Tapejara genus possibly contains two species, both bearing a differently sized/shaped crest that may have been used to signal and display for other Tapejara, much as toucans use their bright bills to signal to one another.

Tapejara crests consisted of a semicircular crest over the snout, and in the case of the type species T. wellnhoferi, a bony prong which extended back behind the head. A second species, T. navigans, lacked this prong and therefore may not belong to a different genus. Soft tissue impressions also show that in T. navigans, the small bony crest was extended by a much larger structure made of a keratinous material (similar to the related T. imperator, with an even larger crest supported by a backwards prong as in T. wellnhoferi). The complete crest of T. navigans rose in a sharp, sail-like “dome” high above the rest of the skull.

Profiles of three species historically assigned to Tapejara. T. imperator has been renamed Tupandactylus, and T. navigans has also been assigned to a new genus.The type species and first discovered, T. wellnhoferi, is the smallest species assigned to Tapejara and does not preserve evidence of soft-tissue crest extensions.

Photo: Right. Another boat prow from the Ancient Maori:

A second species, originally named Tapejara imperator, is much larger and possessed a crest made up of distinctively long prongs, projecting from the rounded snout crest and the back of the skull, which supported a large, possibly rounded sail-like crest of keratin. A third species, Tapejara navigans, was mid-sized and sported a similar crest to T. imperator, though narrower and more dome-shaped, that lacked the backwards-pointing bony support prong.

Several studies in 2007 showed that T. imperator and possibly T. navigans are too different from T. wellnhoferi and therefore require their own genus names. The species T. imperator was given its own genus….”…wikipedia

“Tupuxuara is a genus of large, crested, toothless pterosaur, originally described in 1988 from the Cretaceous Santana Formation of Brazil by Alexander Kellner and Diogenes Campos,[1] but since reported from North America as well.

Photo:Another comparison of pterosaur and the Maori prow creature.

It was superficially similar in appearance to Pteranodon, mature individuals having a swept back crest arising from the snout, but its crest was larger and more pronounced than that of Pteranodon. Females of the species also had large crests, but their crests were more round. It is likely that Tupuxuara was a fish eater, and lived near the coasts of South America.

Photo: Ancient Maori war canoe. Note prow shape at its front.

The skull of the Tupuxuara measured a length of 900mm, the length of the entire body was 2.5 meters, and had a wingspan of 5.4 meters. Among pterosaurs, Tupuxuara is part of a group termed the Azhdarchoidea, but within Azhdarchoidea there is a controversy as to whether Tupuxuara is closer to the azhdarchids (the group that includes the giant Texan form Quetzalcoatlus) or to Tapejara and its relatives.” ..wikipedia

It is of course unlikely that Tupuxuara is the man-eating culprit if he was truly toothless as science supposes.

UFO and/or Pterosaur Photographed in Nihuil Argentina Above Lake

Crypto, Dinosaurs in Literature,, Uncategorized, Unexplained Artifact | Posted by Chris Parker
Sep 07 2009

Photo:Unidentified Flying Object; Sept. 7, 2009. Click to enlarge.

Versions of this story and a series of blurry, low reso photos appeared in various South American newpaper outlets. The following news story was translated from Diarios De Los Andes.

A gentleman photographed and object that he noted was silent and that was hovering several feet above the lake near the shoreline. One photo in particular has prompted some to suggest that this was a sighting of a fishing/hunting pterosaur.

The other photos in the series do not as clearly support that or any other known object. The pterosaur hypothesis remains viable but unproven given the quality of these photos. One way to also see the other photos as pterosaur is to assume that it is flying drectly away from the viewer with the wings in profile, the long neck visible with the other appendages as legs and traling tail. (But hey, you have eyes) :0)

Photo: “UFO” compared to pterosaur and Ropen. Click to view larger version.

Sooner or later the continued existence of the pterosaur will be a proven fact and when that happens, it will put the “mythology” of the ancients and flying dragons in an interesting context. See Tracking the Ancient Griffin, Modern Monsters and the “Extinct” Pterosaur Through Art, History and Science-…If you haven’t already…

See Also:Weird Object over Wichita

He went to fish and says that he saw a UFO
Diarios de lLos Andes, Sept 7, 2009

A resident of the City of Nihuil in Argentina went to fish and encountered and unknown flying object near the shoreline of the dam. He managed to take several photos of the object with his the cellular phone.

This is one of the photos of the series that the fisherman took near the shoreline of the lake. (Top, left)(Images: Newspaper San Rafael)

A man who lives in the town of Nihuil is said to have seen an object that could not identify. He took photos of the object with his cellular phone and he believes that it is a UFO (not identified flying object).

“I saw it and by luck was able to take several photos of it. The fishing fanatic said that he did not want to reveal his identity. According to the story published in the today, the resident of Nihuil saw the object unknown flying over the lake in the late hours of Saturday afternoon.

The man who made “incredible” discovery, at first, did not want anyone to find out about what he had seen. But a friend convinced him to present the news to the press, relates the early riser. ”

He was not afraid during the encounter. Besides he continued, I liked it because they are things that are of interest to me, since I believe that alien life must exist on other planets. He affirmed the sighting in handwritten declarations to thepress. After snapping the images on the telephone, he realized that the unknown object in the sky had disappeared.

This story also told at Diario de Dan Rafael

Amazingly Accurate, True Life, Toy Pteranodon?

Crypto, Dinosaurs in Literature,, Unexplained Artifact | Posted by Chris Parker
Aug 14 2009

Click Photo for Larger version

On the right is the “new Soft-Touch Giant Pteranodon” by Everything Dinosaur. It is reportedly, “very easy to carry around” and is “soft and squeezy”. On the left is an apparent pteranodon depiction made by eyewitnesses. At least we assume that the makers of this mask topped by the “pteranodon creature” actually looked like–or got his hands on somebody’s modern “dinosaur” book.

Pteranodon was thought by some to have gone extinct millions of years before man even “evolved”. This artist was savvy enough to know that pteranodon had no teeth and ate fish. The artist has made the eyes bulge in this representation in a way most modern conceptions of the creature do not.

The mask is antique, and comes from the Dan people who inhabited the Ivory Coast beginning in the eighth century. This piece is owned by a collector.

The Gallery identifies the “bird-like creature” atop the mask as “zoomorphic”.

Note that the beaks are extremely similar–depicted as “shiny” in both the mask and the toy. . His wings are tucked somewhat behind him. The two figures agree as to body shape, head spike, beak, legs and feet.

This mask is from the Ashione gallery.

Living Pterosaurs Newsletter 013

Crypto, Dinosaurs in Literature, Science, Unexplained Artifact | Posted by Chris Parker
Feb 12 2009

February 06, 2009
By Jonathan Whitcomb

Photo: Ancient Nigerian Art

To living-pterosaur investigators and to those interested

Introduction to Living-Pterosaur Expeditions
Florida Sighting Around 2002
Philippines Sighting Around 1994
New Insights Into Early History of LP Investigations
New Web Sites (including non-English pages)


Introduction to Living Pterosaur Expeditions

Living-pterosaur investigations began around 1993, when Carl Baugh (founder and director of the Creation Evidence Museum, in Glen Rose, Texas) and missionary Jim Blume interviewed nationals (natives) in Papua New Guinea. Baugh was later assisted by Paul Nation in their 1994 expedition to Umboi Island, PNG.

In 1996, Baugh and Blume searched for pterosaurs in Northern Papua New Guinea, with one indistinct sighting of what may have been a ropen. In 2001, an American (who later informed me that he wishes to be anonymous) explored on the mainland of Papua New Guinea. He interviewed native eyewitnesses of a giant nocturnal flying creature that was reported to have killed a child years earlier. We suspect that it may have been a ropen.

In 2002, Paul Nation and his son, Nathanael, explored on Umboi Island, but saw no ropen. In 2004, the investigations continued with my own expedition and that of David Woetzel and Garth Guessman; we explored on Umboi Island and interviewed many eyewitnesses, in two separate expeditions. There were
two distant sightings: one per expedition.

More expeditions followed (Papua New Guinea): 2006 (Paul Nation) and 2007 (two). These three expeditions resulted in two separate video recordings of strange glowing objects that could not be explained, by scientists, as any commonplace light.

From 2007-2008, most investigations involved sightings in North America.

Florida Sighting Around 2002

I received a sighting report from a man who lives in Florida. He says that he is acquainted with birds (that might be mistaken for a pterosaur). In his own words (spelling and grammar corrected):

“About 6 years ago I was sitting outside my house with a buddy of mine . . . about 2 or 3 in the morning . . . something caught . . . our attention . . . [a] flying creature that flew over our heads towards my backyard . . . pointed wing tips, no feathers, pointed beak and . . . long pointed thing protruding from the back of its head.

“I live in florida so I’ve seen my share of cranes . . . but this WAS NOT a bird. A second later, something made us look across the street where we saw a second one flying over a house flying down
into that house’s backyard. . . [The first creature had] about 4′ long (wingspan).

“We were not drinking or on drugs! As soon as we saw the second one across the street we immediatly looked at each other and . . .I said, “was that what I think it was?”

He said ‘naaa it had to be something else.’

“I promise they were not birds.”

Philippines Sighting Around 1994
[grammer and spelling corrected] Late in 2008, I received a report from a man in his 20′s who saw
what he called a “pterodactyl,” in fact two flying together, when he was a boy in the city of Pagbilao, Quezon Province (not to be confused with Quezon City).

According to the eyewitness, “I think we’re not the only ones who saw it, because my classmate told me that there are sightings of this thing in Atimonan, Quezon [Province], just one-half hr travel from Pagbilao, and I was told by the local fisherman there that he saw it several times, flying above the sea.”

I asked the young man some questions:

Q: Did the two creatures have tails?

A: YES! they have long tails about 3 to 4 meters long . . .it is not a bird: They don’t have any feathers.

Q: Did you have a good view of them?

A: Yes! I was not the only one who saw it . . .

Q: What time of day was it?

A: It was around 2:00-3:00 pm in the afternoon . . .

He added more: “I saw them clearly: the SHAPE, their BAT-LIKE WINGS, a LONG NECK and
. . . I dunno if it is a horn behind their heads. They have a long beak. I even saw their claws between their wings. They don’t have any feathers; their body really looks like a bat. They seldom flap their wings, about every 3-4 sec.; thats why I knew it is not just a big bat. . . .”

I know of other similar reports from the Philippines. It seems to me that this creature is a ropen, like the one in Papua New Guinea. (JW) We receive many reports of individual ropen-like creatures, but these two reports remind us that there are exceptions: Sometimes ropens do not fly alone. (JW)

New Insights Into Early History of LP Investigations

Soon after sending out the last newsletter (012), I received a comment from Garth Guessman (one of themost active living-pterosaur investigators of the past few years). Garth contacted Dr. Carl Baugh (one of the pioneers of these investigations) and received this response from Baugh (about how this got started):

Hello Garth and Duane, [late 2008] . . . If I remember correctly, the late Walter Lang met Fred Brauer at one of Walt’s speaking appointments. After hearing of our mutual interest, Fred related to Walt his
knowledge of the . . . sighting by Duane Hodgkinson . . .

I visited with Fred and Walt at the Minneapolis Creation Conference. As a result of these connections I proceeded with the first venture to Papua New Guinea. Without these vital connections none of the work would have been possible.

Blessings, Carl Baugh

In other words, without the brave openness of eyewitness Duane Hodgkinson, none of these living-pterosaur expeditionswould have gotten started, for Baugh’s expeditions of 1993, 1994, and 1996 prepared the way for the other expeditions. Hodgkinson got these investigations started. (JW)

New Web Sites (including non-English pages)

Three redirections for old AOL pages about LP

(“Hometown has been shutdown.”):

Another page about eyewitness Gideon Koro:


Reply to the Site “Prehistoric Reptiles”

Ropens Critic

Criticism of living-pterosaur reports, part two

Critic Part 2

An Undiscovered Modern Pterosaur?

Undiscovered Pterosaur

The Indava–Is it a Pterosaur?


El Ropen de Papúa Nueva Guinea

El Ropen

“Ropen” de Papúa la Nouvelle-Guinée

Ropen (French)

Nouvelles dans le Français – Les renseignements sur un animal ont appelé “ropen”

New Inside France

The archive of the previous newsletter (012) (about “Lines of Influence,” Near-collision over
Indonesia, and Georgia sightings) is found at:

Newsletter 012

Back issues of the first eight issues of this newsletter are at:

Back Isues

Thank you for your interest in living pterosaurs.