Posts Tagged ‘egypt’

The Pharaoh’s Prime Minister; Is There Physical Evidence for the Exodus?

Religious, Science, Uncategorized, Unexplained Artifact | Posted by Chris Parker
Nov 05 2009

Photo: Imhotep; Another Joseph son of Jacob candidate?

04/11/2009
By Dr. Zahi Hawass
Asharq Alawsat

Cairo, Asharq Al-Awsat- Many archaeologists and researchers have spoken about Aper-al’s tomb that was discovered in the Saqqara area. Aper-al held the title of “Prime Minister of Egypt” and they [archaeologists and researchers] say that the name Aper-al indicates that he was one of the Egyptianized Hebrews.

One adventure that I will never forget is when I entered that tomb that was sculpted into a rock of the plateau upon which ancient Egyptians built their pyramids and tombs over 5000 years ago. I descended more than 30 meters underground and saw the antiquities found in the tomb including jewels, cosmetic equipment, beautiful funerary masks and coffins embellished with inscriptions.

The question I had in mind at that moment was: could a Hebrew assume the highest position in a state after the position of Pharaoh? And would he have been permitted to build his tomb on a sacred ancient Egyptian site like Saqqara, the name of which is derived from the ancient Egyptian god “Sokar,” the god of death in ancient Egypt?

Behind closed doors, some quietly claim that this tomb belongs to Prophet Joseph, son of Prophet Jacob, especially as we came across texts inside the tomb that referred to the significant role played by Aper-al side-by-side with the Pharaoh despite being of Hebrew origin.

According to some people, those texts carry indirect references to Prophet Joseph’s biography as mentioned in the holy books including his astonishing rise above social classes to reach the position of “Al-Aziz Misr” which is equivalent to the post of prime minister.

But what contradicts this theory is the fact that Prophet Joseph, peace be upon him, lived before the Amarna era, that is, before 1353 BC, and that his remains had been moved from Egypt by his grandsons according to what was stated in the Book of Exodus (13, 19).

French archaeologist Alain Zivie believes that Aper-al’s upbringing in a royal court is quite reminiscent of the life of Prophet Moses, peace be upon him. Since we are discussing the Amarna era, we’re not that far from Akhenaten (for whom Aper-al worked) or from the very special monotheistic creed that he created. Accordingly, anything became possible including imaginary conceptions and far-fetched interpretations of the inscriptions found on the antiquities.

The monotheistic creed advocated by the Prophets of the Israelites, including Moses, peace be upon him, is completely different to Akhenaten’s concept of monotheism. Though they both agreed that the universe had one God, Akhenaten failed to completely rid himself of inherited, idolatry aspects when he embodied the power of the one and only God in a sundial and portrayed its rays as the hands of god reaching out to humans with light and illumination.

The people of Prophet Moses did the same when they were overcome by idolatry tendencies. They embodied their god in the form of a sacred calf and incurred the anger of Moses and the wrath of God. So they were doomed to wander in the wilderness of Sinai’s plains, deserts and mountains for continuous 40 years.

As for the Vizier Ramose, he has one of the most beautiful tombs of the Nobles in the West Bank of Thebes or Luxor. It is tomb number 55 and some prefer to pronounce his name as “Ra’amusa”. He was a vizier during the period in which Akhenaten joined his father Amenhotep III in ruling Egypt from the 18th dynasty in the New Kingdom, around 3500 years ago.

Researcher Ibrahim Mohammed Kamel argues that the name Moses spread widely in Egypt in the early 18th dynasty and during the 19th dynasty and it means “boy” or “newborn.” Egyptians were sometimes given the name “Moses” on its own or as part of compounds containing the names of their gods for example, Raa’-Moses, Amoun-Moses or Eyah-Moses, which respectively mean the newborn of Raa’, the newborn of Betah and the newborn of the moon. So did Prophet Moses bear the name of an ancient Egyptian deity?

As for Aper-al, there is one possibility that I am strongly in favour of; he is most probably an Egyptian and not a Hebrew, even though his name is non-Egyptian. Until now, there are Egyptians who have names that might refer to nationalities and ethnicities that are non-Egyptian, even though they are Egyptian to the core.

Top Egyptian Daily: Joseph’s Era Coins Found in Egypt with Joseph’s Portrait

Religious, Science, Uncategorized, Unexplained Artifact | Posted by Chris Parker
Sep 28 2009

by Hillel Fendel

(IsraelNN.com)

The report in Al-Ahram boasts that the find backs up the Koran’s claim that coins were used in Egypt during Joseph’s period. Joseph, son of the Patriarch Jacob, died around 1450 B.C.E., according to Jewish sources.

Excerpts from the Al-Ahram report, as translated by Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI):

“In an unprecedented find, a group of Egyptian researchers and archeologists has discovered a cache of coins from the time of the Pharaohs. Its importance lies in the fact that it provides decisive scientific evidence disproving the claim by some historians that the ancient Egyptians were unfamiliar with coins and conducted their trade through barter.

“The researchers discovered the coins when they sifted through thousands of small archeological artifacts stored in [the vaults of] the Museum of Egypt. [Initially] they took them for charms, but a thorough examination revealed that the coins bore the year in which they were minted and their value, or effigies of the pharaohs [who ruled] at the time of their minting. Some of the coins are from the time when Joseph lived in Egypt, and bear his name and portrait.

“There used to be a misconception that trade [in Ancient Egypt] was conducted through barter, and that Egyptian wheat, for example, was traded for other goods. But surprisingly, Koranic verses indicate clearly that coins were used in Egypt in the time of Joseph…

“Research team head Dr. Sa’id Muhammad Thabet said that during his archeological research on the Prophet Joseph, he had discovered in the vaults of the [Egyptian] Antiquities Authority and of the National Museum many charms from various eras before and after the period of Joseph, including one that bore his effigy as the minister of the treasury in the Egyptian pharaoh’s court…

“Studies by Dr. Thabet’s team have revealed that what most archeologists took for a kind of charm, and others took for an ornament or adornment, is actually a coin. Several [facts led them to this conclusion]: first, [the fact that] many such coins have been found at various [archeological sites], and also [the fact that] they are round or oval in shape, and have two faces: one with an inscription, called the inscribed face, and one with an image, called the engraved face – just like the coins we use today.

“The archeological finding is also based on the fact that the inscribed face bore the name of Egypt, a date, and a value, while the engraved face bore the name and image of one of the ancient Egyptian pharaohs or gods, or else a symbol connected with these. Another telling fact is that the coins come in different sizes and are made of different materials, including ivory, precious stones, copper, silver, gold, etc.”

One coin had an inscription on it, and an image of a cow symbolizing Pharaoh’s dream about the seven fat cows and seven lean cows, and the seven green stalks of grain and seven dry stalks of grain.

“The researcher identified coins from many different periods, including coins that bore special markings identifying them as being from the era of Joseph. Among these, there was one coin that had an inscription on it, and an image of a cow symbolizing Pharaoh’s dream about the seven fat cows and seven lean cows, and the seven green stalks of grain and seven dry stalks of grain.

It was found that the inscriptions of this early period were usually simple, since writing was still in its early stages, and consequently there was difficulty in deciphering the writing on these coins. But the research team [managed to] translate [the writing on the coin] by comparing it to the earliest known hieroglyphic texts…

Joseph’s name appears twice on this coin, written in hieroglyphs: once the original name, Joseph, and once his Egyptian name, Saba Sabani, which was given to him by Pharaoh when he became treasurer. There is also an image of Joseph, who was part of the Egyptian administration at the time.”

Ahh, But There are the Naysayers….Click To Read Another take; Hold the Mint!

Pteranodon on a Stick: Egyptian “Was” Scepter Creature No Mystery Without Darwinian History

Uncategorized | Posted by Chris Parker
Sep 28 2009


by Chris Parker, copyright 2009

The Was scepter was a ubiquitous Egyptian symbol signifying power and authority and hundreds of examples of it have been found in Ancient Egyptian art; usually in connection with Egyptian “gods” and Pharaohs as well as with other authority figures.

In the past month or so, I have received several emails to the effect that the mystery creature which sits atop of the Was scepter (in most cases) is clearly a pterosaur. I believe I’ve received separate correspondences from Garth Guessman of Genesis Park and Cliff Paiva of BSM Associates.


Mr. Paiva’s article on this topic can be found here.

Photo, Right: Faience votice was-scepter, excavated at Faras in Nubia, Late period, MMA 41.2.9. Click photo for larger version.
In my own research, I‘ve seen writer after writer and one Egyptian Authority after another speculate freely and inconclusively about the mystery creature that sits atop this well-known and researched Egyptian symbol. Could it be a rabbit they wonder? Could it be a type of bird? Is it an amalgam of several animals?

Surely, it is like other Egyptian symbols and based upon a real creature? If so, what was that creature, they wonder? Novel theories have been put forward to explain the origin of the mystery creature and yet, the identity of the creature is really quite evident—if one knows where to look.

It is quite clearly a representation of a pterosaur and specifically, based on the current scientific nomenclature about these creatures; it appears to be representation of a pteranodon. The one thing that it appears to be– can’t be considered by serious “academics” because Darwanism has twisted the history of the planet.

Photo:Left; Comparison of Nubian Was Scepter with modern depictions of pteranodon. The Egyptian version looks friendly compared with modern versions and his prong is “ornamented” perhaps with skin or keratin. Click for Higher Reso photo.
Had the Egyptians seen these creatures alive, and the evidence indicates that they did, they would have been quite impressed as some of them reached a height of six feet and had wingspans up to 33 feet or so.

It is true however, that to date fossils of pteranodon have not been found in Egypt or on the continent of Africa, although pterosaurs have been found—but the evidence speaks for itself.
Pteranodons are known for the backwards projecting spike or prong that forms a portion of their skulls. There are of course, several types of Pteranodons and the Egyptian examples may or may not be from a known group.

Photo:Right;Kom Ombo and Ombi – is an agricultural town in Egypt famous for the Temple of Kom Ombo. It was originally an Egyptian city called Nubt, meaning City of Gold (not to be confused with the city north of Naqada that was also called Nubt/Ombos). It became a Greek settlement during the Greco-Roman Period. The town’s location on the Nile 50 km north of Aswan (Syene) gave it some control over trade routes from Nubia to the Nile Valley, but its main rise to prominence came with the erection of the temple in the 2nd century BC…Wikipedia


Artists that have never seen pteranodon have speculated in their drawings as to how the backwards projecting prong presented itself on the live creature. There tends to be an incredible amount of group think in their portrayals, even as to the angle and perspectives shown which rarely change.

In most cases, the “prong” is shown without any “ornamentation”; however, the Egyptian artists have generally portrayed the prong with ornamentation. It is certainly fair to say that the Egyptian version is plausible given the pteranodon skull fossils that have been found.

Comparison of Kom Ombo “mystery creature” with modern pteranodon interpretations. Drawing on the left selected because artist imagined a pteranodon similar to the Egyptian version. Click for high reso photo

In this collection, we’ll look at some of the speculation concerning the Was scepter as well as compare a number of them with current artistic renderings of the Pteranodon. Pteranodon was thought by science to have been extinct for 75 million years. The ancient Egyptian culture is not nearly that old of course suggesting that science is wrong…..s8int.com

“Was” Speculation:

Was Scepter

Photo:Right; Was sceptre in the Egyptian antiquities section in the British Museum. Click for Higher Resolution photo/

(was) Appearance: The was scepter is a straight staff with a forked base and topped with an angled transverse section. The top of the staff was often shaped as the head of some fantastic creature, perhaps the bennu bird.

Originally, the was scepter may have been a fetish associated with the spirit of a sacred animal, or perhaps it was simply a herdsman’s staff”….Ancient Egypt and Mythology

“Was (“power”) scepters represent the typhonic or Set-animal (the mascot of the Egyptian god Set). Was scepters were depicted as being carried by gods, pharaohs, and priests, as a symbol of power, and in later use, as a symbol of control over the force of chaos that Set represented.

Was scepters often occur in paintings, drawings, and carvings of gods, and remnants of real Was scepters have been found constructed of faience or wood, where the head and forked tail of the Set-animal are visible.

Photo: Left; Comaparison of British Museum Was scepter creature with modern versions of pteranodon from fossils. Click for Higher Resolution photo
The Was (w s) is also the Egyptian hieroglyphic character that stands for a word meaning power.
In their 2004 book The Quick and the Dead, Andrew H. Gordon and Calvin W. Schwabe speculated that the Ankh, Djed and Was symbols were derived from various parts of a bull that were significant in ancient cattle culture, thus:
• the Ankh – symbol of life – thoracic vertebrae of a bull (seen in cross section)
• the Djed – symbol of stability – base or sacrum of a bull’s spine
• the Was sceptre’ – symbol of power and dominion – a staff made from a dried bull’s penis that was the symbol for the goddess Wosret or Wasret.

Photo:Right: “Detail of the “Mysterious” Was Sceptre. A symbol of Ancient Egyptian Divine Royalty, there is hardly a depiction of a god or goddess without it. We know very little about this instrument. No one even knows what the head is depicting, a rabbit, a fox or some other canine, even an ass or the ancient bennu (Phoenix) bird. it’s one of the most important symbols in all Egyptology right along with the ankh wedjet and djed. This detail was taken from Hathor temple, Dendera”……. Hazelra

The Was has a forked top and a tripod base. One suggestion is that the staff was pushed into the ground and a line of sight set through the fork, hence the ruler of all he surveyed.”..Wikipedia

Re: Origins of the Mysterious “Was”-Scepter

“Well, of course it was also a lingual phonetic component, and it has the phonetic value ws. But nearly every other hieroglyphic sign has a “meaning” in the sense that it is derived from a picture of a real world object : man, woman, parts of the body, mammals, birds, buildings, ships, ..

Photo; Left. Comparison of Dendera “creature” with more modern depictions of pteranodon. In one case we’ve added the Egyptian “prong detail” to a current depiction to take note of the results. Click photo for higher resolution.

Even the abstract symbols for life, stability and protection. The Ankh sign (S 34) for life resembles the
body of a person with outstretched hands, The Djed sign (R 11) for stability is a picture of a row of pillars.

The protection sign (V 17) resembles a seal that protects a content.

The “Was” sign depicts a scepter, and it was the symbol for dominion and power. If it was a symbol for power because the kings used it, why did the kings used exactly this scepter ? The question is : why has the “Was” scepter exactly this form and not another ?

What is the original function of it ? What is the origin of this sign ? There must be an origin somewhere in the physical world, because it is a very old sign, a sign that is frequently used in
and before the old kingdom.

Photo: Right; Another view of the Was Scepter compared with modern depictions of the pteranodon from the same point of view. Click for Higher Resolution photo
The development of the writing systems tells us (see e.g. Geoffrey Sampson’s Book Writing Systems, 1985), that every ancient writing system – the egyptian hieroglyphs, the sumerian cuneiform and the chinesesymbols – is derived from pictographic symbols.

For example, the Chinese symbol for “landscape” (shan shu) is a combination of the symbols for mountain and water, the sign for “man” is a combination of the symbols of power (a strong arm) and a
rice field. (working in the rice field was the work of man in china)”…Jochen Fromm

Pteranodon
Photo:Left; Was-Scepter, Wadj-Scepter, Faience Late Period – Macedonian Period, circa 664-305 B.C.E) Provenance not known Broolyn Museum 37 1650E, 37 886E, Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund Photo © Joan Lansberry, May 2008. Click for Higher Resolution photo

Pteranodon (pronounced /t??ræn?d?n/; from Greek ????- “wing” and ??-???? “toothless”), from the Late Cretaceous of North America (Kansas, Alabama, Nebraska, Wyoming, and South Dakota), was one of the largest pterosaur genera, with a wingspan of up to 9 metres (30 ft).

Pteranodon is known from more fossil specimens than any other pterosaur, with about 1,200 specimens known to science, many of them well preserved with complete skulls and articulated skeletons, and was an important part of the animal community present in the Western Interior Seaway

Pteranodon was a reptile, but not a dinosaur. By definition, all dinosaurs were diapsid reptiles with an upright stance, and consist of the group containing saurischians and ornithischians. While the advanced pterodactyloid pterosaurs (like Pteranodon) had a semi-upright stance, this evolved independently of the upright stance in dinosaurs, and pterosaurs lacked the distinctive adaptations in the hip associated with the dinosaurian posture.

However, dinosaurs and pterosaurs may have been closely related, and most paleontologists place them together in the group Ornithodira, or “bird necks”.

Prong or crest

Photo:Right; Cairo Museum. Gilded wood statue of Ptah, with bronze was scepter, inlaid with gold. The base titles him, Ptah, Lord of Ma’at, and also names Tutankhamun. Note the was symbol (pteranodon). Click for Higher resolution

The most distinctive characteristic of Pteranodon is its primary cranial crest. These crests were consisted of skull bones (frontals) projecting upward and backward from the skull. The size and shape of these crests varied due to a number of factors, including age, sex, and species.

Male Pteranodon sternbergi, the older species, had a more vertical crest with a broad forward projection, while their descendants, Pteranodon longiceps, evolved a narrower, more backwards-projecting crest. Females of both species were smaller, and bore small, rounded crests..

…though the function of the crest has been a subject of debate. However, most explanations have focused on the blade-like, backward pointed crest of male P. longiceps, and ignored the wide range of variation across age and gender. The fact that the crests vary so much rules out most practical functions other than for use in mating displays.

In 1943, von Kripp suggested that the crest may have served as a rudder, an idea embraced by several later researchers. One researcher, R.S. Stein, even suggested that the crest may have supported a membrane of skin connecting the backward-pointing crest to the neck and back, increasing its surface area and effectiveness as a rudder.

The rudder hypothesis again does not take into account females or P. sternbergi, which had an upward-pointing, not backward-pointing crest. Bennett also found that even in its capacity as a rudder, the crest would not provide nearly as much directional force as simply maneuvering the wings.

The suggestion that the crest was an air break, and that the animals would turn their heads to the side in order to slow down, suffers from a similar problem. Additionally, the rudder and air break hypotheses do not explain why such large variation exists in crest size even among adults.

Conclusion
Many times here we have presented ancient artifacts or ancient objet’s d’art that we were convinced proved that ancient man had encountered dinosaurs or other creatures that science claims have been extinct for millions of years. What’s unique here is that we have multiple examples of the alleged “extinct” creature. The unique shape of the pteranodon’s head has been idealized in many instances with respect to the Was scepter but there are enough examples with clear details which prove the case.

Is this all too much for your Darwinian trained mind? That’s understandable. After all, who are you going to believe; science or your own lying eyes? :0)

Why not start over with creatures that have only supposedly been extinct for 10,000 to 2,000,000 years and if you can deal with them, then maybe try the pteranodon again.

That Dog Won’t Hunt! -Dog in Turtle Shell Appears to be a Glyptodont

Late Survival of Megatherium in South America-Olmec Culture Representation

Denial Is Not Just A River In Egypt:Suppressed Evidence of Human, Dinosaur and Other “Extinct” Fauna Interaction
in First Century Roman, Nilotic Art

See Also:Tracking Living (Or Recently Dead) African Pterosaurs
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