Photo:The Pyramid of the Sun
In the past two years we have seen the pages of history slowly being rewritten, and Bosnia may soon lay claim to having the world’s oldest pyramidsâ€”which shouldn’t come as a surprise, seeing the area has the oldest European civilisation as well.
A new pyramid paradigm
Over the past 10 years, the old paradigm that pyramids could only be found in Egypt and Central America has been substituted by a new perspective, which is that pyramids are a global phenomenon and have been built by numerous civilisations in several ages. The Pyramid of Cholula in Mexico is now regarded as the largest, though not the tallest, and the pyramid complex at Caral in Peru is the oldest, conservatively dated to 3100 BCE. Most of these findings have received little to no media attention, and even many historians are unaware of these new facts. But one new pyramid complex has been in many headlines, even making appearances on The Daily Show with Jon Stewart: the Bosnian pyramids.
What was described by Stewart as the best thing to happen to Bosnia “sinceâ€¦ever” began in 2005, when Bosnian-born entrepreneur Semir “Sam” Osmanagic was shown the enigmatic Visocica hill that rises above the town of Visoko, near the capital Sarajevo. Could this be a pyramid? Osmanagic decided to invest in a preliminary geological survey, which concluded that further exploration of the structure was recommended.
Furthermore, when his own book on the Mayan pyramids fell open on a page showing a photograph of the Pyramid of the Sun in TeotihuacĂˇn, Mexico, Osmanagic thought the resemblance to be so similar that he decided to call Visocica “Pyramid of the Sun”, too, and the name has stuck. With this, the otherwise tranquil Visoko has become one of the most controversial archaeological sites in the worldâ€”controversial because just about everyone involved in pyramid research has given an opinion on the subject.
Geologist Dr Robert Schoch, who adheres to the theory that the Sphinx is thousands of years older than accepted, said he believes the structures to be natural formations. Dr Zahi Hawass, Secretary General of the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities, had to give his opinion as well, committing a number of faux pas along the way.
For example, when Dr Hawass was asked by Osmanagic to provide the name of an expert, he offered Dr Ali Barakat. A geologist, Dr Barakat meticulously investigated the structures for 42 days in 2006 and concludes that they are man-made. However, Dr Hawass pretended afterwards that he’d had nothing to do with the Bosnian saga!
Dr Barakat is not alone in speaking in favour of the man-made nature of Visocica and other apparent pyramids nearby. Archaeologist Dr Nabil Mohamed Swelim, holder of three PhDs and the discoverer of four pyramids in Egypt, visited the structures in September 2007 and he, too, concludes that they are man-made “pyramid hills”, as distinct from pyramids. A pyramid hill is a natural hill that is artificially enhanced to conform to the pyramid structure, whereas a pyramid is built from the bottom up.
There is also a growing and impressive list of scientistsâ€”mostly from Egypt, Eastern Europe and Russiaâ€”who conclude that these structures are man-made. But their voices, specifically in the western media, have gone unheard.
Indeed, the First International Scientific Conference, Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids (ICBP), held on 25â€“30 August 2008, received minimal exposure despite the participation of the likes of Dr Alaa Shaheen, archaeologist and Dean of the Faculty of Archaeology at Cairo University, Dr Hassan El-Saady, historian and Vice Dean of the Faculty of Arts at Alexandria University, Dr Mostafa El-Abbadi, founder of the modern library in Alexandria (the Bibliotheca Alexandrina) and Dr Mohamed Ibrahim Aly, Egyptologist and archaeologist in the Faculty of Arts at Ein-Shams University, Cairo.
Instead, the few reports in the western media focused on the critics, who labelled the conference “pseudo-scientific”. What equally was not reported is that invitations from Dr Swelim to the critics to attend were ignored by those critics.
A scientific crusade
The most avowed critic of the Bosnian pyramids in the western world is archaeology professor Anthony Harding, of the University of Exeter, UK. He voiced his opinion on the matter as early as April 2006, and drove around the town of Visoko for a few minutes in June that year, afterwards labelling the Visocica pyramid a natural formation. One might therefore think that the good professor had then moved on to other fields, but no.
Immediately after the ICBP in August 2008, Professor Harding approached some of those who made the official conclusion/ recommendation (which is that the site requires and warrants continued excavation), stating that the archaeological establishment has “condemned” the Bosnian pyramids as “a fraud”. Harding has never put any hard scientific facts on any table to support such a serious allegation.
In the program for the European Association of Archaeologists September 2008 Malta conference, he summed up the discovery as the “Bosnian pyramid fiasco”, which “has drawn attention to the way in which the creation of fictitious pasts can be used for political and nationalist ends”. Still, if Harding is so convinced that the pyramids are fraudulent, then why waste time pursuing the story let alone approaching some of the attendees?
An archaeological site in Donje Mostre, in the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramid, has unveiled a Neolithic artefact that has been dated to 6000-3000 BC.
The discovery was made by students of the German University of Kiel on September 23, and was announced by Zilke KujundĹľic, who is actually one of the main opponents to the pyramid project, having filed numerous petitions for the work to be stopped, claiming the entire project is a hoax. We need to specify she actually labelled the object a pyramid.
The small ceramic pyramid â€“ in some reports also referred to as a benben stone, because of apparent visual similarities with such stones in Egypt â€“ is a major discovery, showing that local people, millennia ago, created ceramic objects in the shape of a pyramid. One can only wonder why, noting that Donje Mostre is also the location where giant rectangular stone blocks have been found, some of which are definitely manmade.
Nevertheless, being the extreme (one might argue irrational) critic she is, KujundĹľic has refused to admit she might be wrong, stating that the find is â€śnot relatedâ€ť to the nearby pyramids. Meanwhile, KujundĹľic was also accused of not having shared the discovery with the local Visoko museum.
It is no doubt divine irony that some of the best archaeological evidence for the reality of the pyramids, has been unearthed by one of its fiercest opponents.
Second Photo:Alleged Pyramid
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SARAJEVO – An Egyptian geologist who has joined Bosnian researchers unearthing what are thought to be europes’s first pyramids believes they bear similar hallmarks to the ancient structures in his homeland, an official said.
Aly Abd Alla Barakat, of the Egyptian Mineral Resources Authority, believes large stone blocks found near Sarajevo were man-made and polished in the same way as the pyramids of Giza, said the Bosnian Pyramid Foundation’s Mario Gerussi.
“Barakat has also found the presence of a special material linking the stone blocks which is identical to that used for pyramids in Giza ,” he added.
Barakat had extensive knowledge of the pyramids in Egypt and had been recommended for the Bosnian mission by Zahi Hawass, one of the world’s foremost Egyptologists, said Gerussi.
Over the next month, he is to work with Bosnian experts at Visoko valley, some 30 kilometres north of Sarajevo, which is believed to be hiding three major pyramids.
Since the digging work began in mid-April on one of the three hills there believed contain pyramids, researchers have unearthed a number of large stone blocks.
Semir Osmanagic, a self-styled Bosnian explorer who initiated the work, says he believes the blocks are part of a pyramid’s surface.
Previously, satellite images showed that the hills in the valley cooled a lot faster than their surroundings, proving the substance of the structures was less dense and therefore probably made by men.
Also, the structures are precisely aligned with the four points of the compass.
The excavation work at Visoko, led by the foundation of local archaeologists and volunteers, will last 200 days and is expected to cost some 125,000 euros (160,000 dollars).
While most Bosnians are hopeful the pyramids will be found, a group of the country’s archaeologists and historians have dismissed Osmanagic’s mission as a “farce.”Ă‚Â
By AMEL EMRIC | Associated Press
NewMexican April 23, 2006 April 19, 2006
VISOKO, Bosnia-Herzegovina (AP)
Researchers in on Wednesday unearthed the first solid evidence that an ancient pyramid lies hidden beneath a massive hill a series of geometrically cut stone slabs that could form part of the structureĂ˘â‚¬â„˘s sloping surface.
Archaeologists and other experts began digging into the sides of the mysterious hill near the central Bosnian town of Visoko last week. On Wednesday, the digging revealed large stone blocks on one side that the leader of the team believes are the outer layer of the pyramid.
Ă˘â‚¬ÂťThese are the first uncovered walls of the pyramid,Ă˘â‚¬Âť said Semir Osmanagic, a Bosnian archaeologist who studied the pyramids of Osmanagic said WednesdayĂ˘â‚¬â„˘s discovery significantly bolsters his theory that the 650-meter (2,120-foot) hill rising above the small town of Visoko is actually a step pyramid the first found in .Ă˘â‚¬ÂťWe can see the surface is perfectly flat. This is the crucial material proof that we are talking pyramids,Ă˘â‚¬Âť he said.
Osmanagic believes the structure itself is a colossal 220 meters (722 feet) high, or a third taller than EgyptĂ˘â‚¬â„˘s Great Pyramid of Giza.
The huge stone blocks discovered Wednesday appear to be cut in cubes and polished.
Ă˘â‚¬Ĺ“It is so obvious that the top of the blocks, the surface is man made,Ă˘â‚¬Âť Osmanagic said. He plans to continue the work throughout the summer, Ă˘â‚¬Ĺ“after which the pyramid will be visible,Ă˘â‚¬Âť he said.
Earlier research on the hill, known as Visocica, found that it has perfectly shaped, 45-degree slopes pointing toward the cardinal points, and a flat top. Under layers of dirt, workers discovered a paved entrance plateau, entrances to tunnels and large stone blocks.
Satellite photographs and thermal imaging revealed two other, smaller pyramid-shaped hills in the Visoko Valley.Last weekĂ˘â‚¬â„˘s excavations began with a team of rescue workers from a nearby coal mine being sent into a tunnel believed to be part of an underground network connecting the three pyramid-shaped hills.
They were followed by archeologists, geologists and other experts who emerged from the tunnel later to declare that it was certainly man-made.
The work will continue for about six months at the site just outside Visoko, about 30 kilometers (20 miles) northwest of the capital, Sarajevo.
Two experts from Egypt are due to join the team in mid-May. Ă˘â‚¬Ĺ“It will be a very exciting archaeological spring and summer,Ă˘â‚¬Âť Osmanagic said.
Near the city of Visoko, 30 km north of Sarajevo, there is a stone pyramid of monumental size, claims the Bosnian archeologist Semir OsmanagiĂ„â€ˇ, who lives and works in the USA.
After several months of geological and archeological research, Mr. OsmanagiĂ„â€ˇ concluded that under the present hill of VisoĂ„ÂŤica hides a stairs-like pyramid, about 12,000 years old. OsmanagiĂ„â€ˇ, who intensively researched on pyramids in Americas, Asia and Africa for the last 15 years and wrote several books on the subject, says he’s quite sure he found the first pyramid in Europe, which is quite similar to ones in the Southern America.
He believes that the project would completely change Bosnia’s significance in the world of archeology.
On the top of “Bosnian pyramid of Sun” was a temple, built by pre-Illyrians, people who lived, according to OsmanagiĂ„â€ˇ, 27,000 years ago.
Mr. OsmanagiĂ„â€ˇ thinks he will solve the “Bosnian pyramid of Sun” in the next five years, but also prove the existence of “Bosnian pyramid of Moon”, lying under the neighboring hill of KriĂ…ÂľĂ‚Ĺľ.
According to BBC, the leading Bosnian newspaper “Dnevni Avaz” writes:
“The pyramid is 100 metres (300 feet) high and there is evidence that it contains rooms and a monumental causeway … The plateau is built of stone blocks, which indicates the presence at the time of a highly developed civilisation,” the daily explains.
“Archaeological excavations near the surface have uncovered a part of a wall and fragments of steps,” it reveals.
“Visocica hill could not have been shaped like this by nature,” geologist Nada Nukic tells the daily. “This is already far too more than we have anticipated, but we expect a lot more from further analysis,” she concludes.