Study Published in Nature Says that Vast Majority of Mutational Changes in Human Genome Occurred in the Last 5,000-10,000 Years: Cue Genesis

Posted by Chris Parker
Mar 04 2013



“For the creation waits in eager expectation for the children of God to be revealed. For the creation was subjected to frustration, not by its own choice, but by the will of the one who subjected it, in hope that the creation itself will be liberated from its bondage to decay and brought into the freedom and glory of the children of God. We know that the whole creation has been groaning as in the pains of childbirth right up to the present time. Not only so, but we ourselves, who have the firstfruits of the Spirit, groan inwardly as we wait eagerly for our adoption to sonship, the redemption of our bodies. For in this hope we were saved”. Romans 8

According to evolutionists, anatomically modern humans, Homo sapiens, sapiens evolved approximately 200,000 years ago. The view of most Christians and certainly of “young earth creationists” is that man along with the entire universe was created less than 10,000 years ago. Although mutation and natural selection is the supposed engine powering evolution mutations are in fact harmful nearly 100% of the time. Creationists believe that man was created “perfect” but that since the fall of man in the garden the whole creation including man has been becoming less perfect as time goes by. The impact of harmful mutations has caused man’s genome to actually degenerate over time. Could the current rate of de-evolution have been occurring over the last 200,000 years?

Now comes a peer reviewed article in nature- a “high resolution sequencing study” of the human genome which indicates that the vast majority of the mutational load carried by human beings occurred within the last 5,000 to 10,000 years. Naturally the authors of this study have a different interpretation of the results than do creationists….s8intcom

  


High-resolution sequencing study emphasizes importance of rare variants in disease.
Nidhi Subbaraman 28 November 2012, Nature

Past 5,000 years prolific for changes to human genome

The human genome has been busy over the past 5,000 years. Human populations have grown exponentially, and new genetic mutations arise with each generation. Humans now have a vast abundance of rare genetic variants in the protein-encoding sections of the genome1, 2.

A study published today in Nature3 now helps to clarify when many of those rare variants arose. Researchers used deep sequencing to locate and date more than one million single-nucleotide variants — locations where a single letter of the DNA sequence is different from other individuals — in the genomes of 6,500 African and European Americans. The findings confirm their earlier work suggesting that the majority of variants, including potentially harmful ones, were picked up during the past 5,000–10,000 years. Researchers also saw the genetic stamp of the diverging migratory history of the two groups.

The large sample size — 4,298 North Americans of European descent and 2,217 African Americans — has enabled the researchers to mine down into the human genome, says study co-author Josh Akey, a genomics expert at the University of Washington in Seattle. He adds that the researchers now have “a way to look at recent human history in a way that we couldn’t before.”

Akey and his colleagues were able to dig out genetic variants occurring in less than 0.1% of the sample population — a resolution that is a full order of magnitude finer than that achieved in previous studies, says Alon Keinan, a statistical geneticist at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, who was not involved with the study.

Of 1.15 million single-nucleotide variants found among more than 15,000 protein-encoding genes, 73% in arose the past 5,000 years, the researchers report.

On average, 164,688 of the variants — roughly 14% — were potentially harmful, and of those, 86% arose in the past 5,000 years. “There’s so many of [variants] that exist that some of them have to contribute to disease,” says Akey

Genetic bottleneck

The researchers found that the European Americans had a larger proportion of potentially harmful variants — probably an artefact of their original migration out of Africa. The first small group of humans that left Africa for Europe experienced a sudden drop in genetic diversity — a ‘bottleneck’ — owing to the smaller pool of possible mating partners. In the rapid expansion in population size that followed, selection was slow to catch up to and weed out potentially harmful mutations.

More broadly, the results suggest that humans are carrying around larger numbers of deleterious mutations than they did a few thousand years ago. But this doesn’t mean that humans now are more susceptible to disease, says Akey. Rather, it suggests that most diseases arecaused by more than one variant, and that diseases could operate through different genetic pathways and mechanisms in different people.

The findings further undermine the idea that common diseases are caused by common variations, says Sarah Tishkoff, a geneticist at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. When genomics researchers first began looking at the genome for links to diseases, that was their assumption, but they quickly saw it fall short (see Nature 456, 18–21; 2008).

“This type of study nails home the point that we need to be looking at rare variation,” Tishkoff says.

As it becomes cheaper and easier to sequence individuals’ genomes, researchers are likely to see finer genetic patterns and trends in the coming years. They could even see patterns of ancestry within just a few generations, says Akey.

SOURCE:Nature

You must be logged in to post a comment.

Trackback URL for this entry